ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Mona M.E. Khalil1 , Amal A.I. Mekawey2 and Fuad A. Alatawi3
1Department of Conservation, Faculty of Archaeology, Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt.
2The Regional Center of Mycology and Biotechnology, Al -Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.
3Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Tabuk University, Tabuk 71491 , Saudi Arabia.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(2):990-1003 | Article Number: 7377 | © The Author(s). 2022
Received: 16/10/2021 | Accepted: 29/03/2022 | Published online: 17/05/2022
Issue online: June 2022

Biodeterioration plays a significant role in the damage and loss of monuments including gypsum work. Bacteria and fungi are mainly responsible for the biodeterioration of gypsum work. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of essential oils (Thyme, clove, cinnamon, garlic, castor, and olive) on the growth of the main fungi and bacteria which isolated from the Nujoumi Dome which is also called the Dome of the Toshka Martyrs and is located in Aswan, Egypt. Microbial swabs were taken from these infected objects, and the isolated microorganisms were characterized. The next genera were identified: four fungal isolates were isolated and identified as Aspergillus japonicas, Aspergillus terrus, Penicillium commune, and Cladosporium elatum while two species of bacteria were isolated, identified as Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Garlic oil had the best effect on all isolates, showing 35 and 33 mm inhibition of growth of Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes, respectively, while 28 mm inhabitation of growth of Penicillium commune, 25 mm inhibition of Aspergillus japonicas, and finally 20 mm inhibition of both Aspergillus terrus and Cladosporium elatum. In conclusion, garlic oil could be an effective natural product for controlling the biodeterioration.


Archaeological dome, gypsum, microbial deterioration, antibacterial, antifungal, essential oil, thyme, garlic, castor, clove, cinnamon and olive oils

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© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.