ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Hawraa Natiq Kabroot AL-Fatlawy1 and Hazim Aziz Naji AL-Hadrawi2
1Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques, Al-Toosi University College, Najaf, Iraq.
2College of Science, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2020;14(3):1825-1833 | Article Number: 6509 | © The Author(s). 2020
Received: 01/07/2020 | Accepted: 02/09/2020 | Published: 17/09/2020

Typhoid fever is a paramount reason for horribleness that more mortal sin “around the sum ages aggregations clinched alongside iraq it initiated by salmonella typhi. Salmonella typhi is diagnosed serologically by the Widal test and confirmed by vitek and using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based amplification of DNA from the bacterial samples of typhoid fever patients. The present study was designed to detect class I integron gene encoding antimicrobial of S. typhi using appropriate primers by PCR. These isolates of this study were collected from postgraduate laboratories (Prepared samples in vitro prepared diagnostics), they were a previous collected from carried out in Al Najaf provenance, throughout those period from July 2018 on March 2019 including 231 cases from blood, stool samples collected from patients suffering from typhoid fever were attended to Al-Sader Medical City and Al-Hakim General Hospital in Al-Najaf province. Biochemically tests and monovalent antisera gave 117 (50.64%) positive result S. typhi isolates and confirmed by Vitek system and PCR which showed positive result 59 (50.42%). Fifty nine isolates of S. typhi, were collected from patients with typhoid fever that distributed to 40/59 (34 %) from blood , 19/59 (15.1%) stool. Molecular detection revealed that most isolates of S. typhi were positive results to (intI) gene 43/59 isolate (the specific primer (intI) gene for S. typhi bacteria was designed in this study by using bioinformatics programs with NCBI website). According to the different diagnostic above, Vitek and PCR method were more sensitivity technique for S. typhi detection among typhoid patients. The results of virulence factors of S.typhi isolates were negative results for gelatinase, hemolysin, protease and capsulated. Multidrug resistance (MDR) of S. typhi isolates were represented by 18 antibiotics resistance to class and sub class of antibiotic. All S. typhi isolates appeared high resistance 100% to Aztreonam (AZM15), Nitrofurantion (F), Amoxicillin/clavulanicacid (AMC30), (PY25), Clarithromycin (CLR), Cefoxitin (FOX30), Penecillin(P10), Cefotaxime (CTX30), ampicillin (AMP), Meropenem (MEM), Tetracycline(TE30). Also resistance of isolates that revealed 91% to Impinem (IP ), 88% Ampicillin (AM10), 85%Amoxillin (AX), 81% Gentamicin (CN10), 80% Chloramphenicol (C30), 74% Cefpirome (CPR) and 68% Carbenicillin (CB).


Salmonella typhi, Typhoid fever, PCR, integron class I, intI gene, Virulence Factors

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© The Author(s) 2020. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.