Poliomyelitis eradication using the oral polio vaccine (OPV), also known as the Sabin vaccine, has been a major medical achievement led by the World Health Organization (WHO) and various countries. The OPV has been administered over 10 billion times to three billion children and has prevented over 13 million polio cases. With the more recent appearance of OPV-related complications, especially the vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) and vaccine-associated polio paralysis, it is important to reconsider the role of this vaccine in polio eradication. Since 2014, the number of VDPV cases has exceeded the number of wild polio virus cases. Given that OPV is the only source of VDPV, an established phased plan to withdraw OPV from use and switch to an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) was determined. Therefore, countries that still use the OPV in their national immunization programs need to develop adequate plans for supplying IPV in an effective and affordable manner. IPV provides protection against polio, but is insufficient for protection against poliovirus circulation when administered alone. Genetically engineered stabilized, live vaccines are being developed and guarantee the profit of Sabin OPV without the risk.
Oral polio vaccine (OPV), wild polio virus, vaccine-associated polio paralysis (VAPP), vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV).
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