Krishna D. Kurubetta*, R.K. Mesta, M.H. Tatagar and
M. Abdul Kareem

Horticulture Research and Extension Station, Devihosur-581110, Haveri , Karnataka, India.

Abstract

The experiment was conducted at Horticulture Research and Extension Station, Devihosur, Haveri, Karnataka to study the effect of different levels of fertilizers with jeevamruta applications at different growth stages of Byadagi Chilli (Dabbi).  The pooled results of the experiment revealed that among fertilizer levels (main plots) 100 % RDF has given the significantly highest dry Chilli yield (829 kg ha-1) compared to other levels of fertilizer doses application. The response of dry chilli yield for jeevamruta application at different stages (sub plots) showed the significant effect. The jeevamruta application @ 550 l ha-1at the time of transplanting + flowering + fruit initiation stages has recorded significantly highest dry chilli yield (619 kg ha-1) compare to jeevamruta application at transplanting stage and transplanting + fruit initiation stage. The similar trend was noticed with respect to number of fruits and fruit yield per plant.  The interaction effect for different levels of fertilizers and jeevamruta application was also differed significantly i.e the 100 %  RDF with jeevamruta application @ 550 l ha-1at transplanting + flowering + fruit initiation stages has recorded significantly highest dry chilli yield (910 kg ha-1) compare to other interaction effects. The similar trend was also noticed with respect to number of fruits and fruit yield per plant.

Keywords: Dry Chilli, Integrated nutrient management, Jeevamruta, RDF.

Introduction

Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the widely grown high value vegetable crops in India as well as in the world, mostly because of its high yield potential, high income to the farmers, greater supply of vitamins and minerals in human nutrition. Extraction of alkaloids (capsaicin) can potentially generate employment opportunities. In addition, the versatilities of this vegetable contribute greater to its popularity as a food product either directly or after processing.  The production of chilli is governed not only by the inherent genetic yield potential of the cultivar but also greatly influenced by several environmental factors and cultivation practices. Integrated nutrient management plays an important role in crop nutrition because of increased demand from high yielding crops and intensive cropping. The continued expansion of cropping on the marginal lands with low levels of micro-nutrients due to increased use of high analysis fertilizers containing low levels of micro-nutrients decreased use of manures, compost and crop residue in some parts of world.

 

Materials and Methods

The field experiment was laid out at Horticulture Research and Extension Station, Devihosur, Haveri, Karnataka for three years (2011, 2012, and 2013) in split plot design with six main and three sub treatments replicated thrice. The main treatments were graded levels of recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) from 25 to 100 per cent, organics (FYM + vermicompost applied on nitrogen equivalent base) and control (no fertilizers). The liquid manure Jeeavamruta was prepared with 10 kg of cow dung mixed with 10 liter of cow urine + Jaggery 2 kg + Pulse flour 2 kg + handful of same field soil mixed in 200 liters of water and kept for 8 days. The sub treatments include the stages of Jeevamruta application. The Jeevamruta was applied @ 550 l / ha at three different growth stages mainly at the time of transplanting, flowering and fruit initiation stage. The crop was raised as per the package of practices and all the crop husbandry practices were carried out.  The jeevamruta a liquid manure contains many of the nutrients and good microbial load which stimulates growth and development of the plant. (Sreenivasa et al., 2011)

 

Table 1. Nutrient status of liquid manure Jeevamruta

Parameter
PH
Soluble salt (dsm-1)
Total nitrogen (ppm)
Total phosphorus (ppm)
Total potassium (ppm)
Total zinc (ppm)
Total copper (ppm)
Total Iron (ppm)
Total manganese (ppm)
Nutrient status
7.07
3.40
770
166
126
4.29
1.58
2.82
10.7

 

 

Table 2. Microbial load of liquid manure Jeevamruta

 

Parameter
Bacteria (no. X 105)
Fungi  (no. X 104)
Actinomycetes (no. X 103)
Phosphate solublising organisms (no. X 102)
Free living N2 –fixers

(no. X 102)

Colony count (cfu/ml)
20.4
13.8
3.6
4.5
5.0

 

 

 

 

Results and Discussion

The three years (2011, 2012 and 2013) pooled results of the experiment (Table 3) revealed that among the main treatment 100 % RDF was recorded significantly highest dry chilli yield (829 kg ha-1) compare to rest of the treatments while the lowest yield was recorded with control (315 kg ha-1). Among the various stages of Jeevamruta applied, the application at transplanting + flowering + fruit intimation stage recorded significantly highest dry chilli yield. (619 kg ha-1) compare to rest of the stages of Jeevamruta application.

`           Among the interactions, chilli supplied with 100% RDF + Jeevamruta application at transplanting + flowering + fruit initiation stage was recorded significantly higher dry chilli yield (910 kg ha-1), while control + Jeevamruta application at transplanting stage recorded the lowest dry chilli yield (315 kg ha-1). The similar trend was noticed in all the three years (2011, 2012 and 2013) of experimentation. The similar result of increase in yield of chilli by combination of RDF and organic manure was also reported by Kattimani et al., 2009 and Shashidhara et al., 2007.

The increase in dry pod yield of chilli with the application 100 % RDF + Jeevamruta application @ 550 l ha-1 at transplanting, flowering and fruit initiation stage is mainly due to significantly higher yield parameters such as number of fruits and fruit weight per plant. Similar result of increase in yield components  was reported by Manoj Kumar Singh et al., 2010 and Sanjutha et al., 2008, increased growth and yield parameters in Kalmegh with the application of FYM @ 15 t ha-1  + NPK -1 @ 75:75:50 kg ha-1  + Panchagavya @ 3 per cent foliar spray.

The economics of the experiment (Table 4) revealed that among the main treatments significantly highest gross returns (Rs. 91,208/-) net returns (Rs. 62,308/-) and B: C ratio (3.2) was obtained with 100% RDF compare to rest of the treatments. The similar trend was also noticed with Jeevamruta application at transplanting + flowering + fruit initiation stages. The treatments differed significantly for interaction effects. The interaction effect of 100 % RDF + Jeevamruta application  at three stages (transplanting + flowering + fruit initiation) recorded significantly  highest gross returns (Rs. 1,00,100/-), net gross returns (Rs. 70,200/-) and B: C ratio (3.3) compare to rest of the treatment combinations. These results are in conformity with the findings of Shivaprasad et al. 2010.

 

 

Table 3.    Effect of graded levels of fertilizers and jeevamruta application on growrh and yield of dry chilli (Three years pooled)

Plant height (cm) No. of Barnches/plant No. of  leaves/plant No. of Fruits plant-1 Dry Fruit yield plant-1 (gm) Dry Fruit yield

(kg ha-1)

Fertilizer Dose Jeevamruta Application
J 1 J 2 J 3 Mean J 1 J 2 J 3 Mean J 1 J 2 J 3 Mean J 1 J 2 J 3 Mean J 1 J 2 J 3 Mean J 1 J 2 J 3 Mean
RDF 100 % 57.1 58.5 61.8 59 4.2 4.7 4.9 4.6 269 277 296 281 27.0 34.0 38.0 33.0 20.0 28.0 33.0 27.0 708 870 910 829
RDF 75 % 56.3 54.8 61.5 58 4.6 4.8 5.2 4.9 210 172 228 203 22.0 23.0 33.0 26.0 16.0 17.0 26.0 19.7 558 705 791 685
RDF 50 % 53.0 53.7 55.7 54 4.4 4.6 4.5 4.5 155 192 185 177 22.0 23.0 23.0 22.7 15.0 17.0 18.0 16.7 446 523 619 529
RDF 25 % 56.2 53.7 53.8 55 4.7 4.9 4.8 4.8 225 214 193 211 19.0 21.0 25.0 21.7 12.0 15.0 15.0 14.0 344 437 554 445
Organic 55.2 53.0 56.7 55 4.8 4.5 4.9 4.7 189 193 187 190 20.0 17.0 22.0 19.7 12.0 15.0 17.0 14.7 343 414 438 398
Control 51.3 52.3 53.4 52 4.2 4.7 4.2 4.4 98 144 156 133 17.0 19.0 19.0 18.3 15.0 12.0 15.0 14.0 315 338 399 351
Mean 55 54 57 55 4.5 4.7 4.8 4.6 191 199 208 199 21.2 22.8 26.7 23.6 15.0 17.3 20.7 17.7 452 548 619 540
S.Em + C.D @ 5 % S.Em + C.D @ 5 % S.Em + C.D @ 5 % S.Em + C.D @ 5 % S.Em + C.D @ 5 % S.Em + C.D @ 5 %
Main (F) 0.95 2.9 0.14 0.45 3.56 10.7 0.71 2.0 0.90 2.6 7.35 22.1
Sub (J) 0.61 1.8 0.09 0.26 2.27 6.7 0.45 1.3 0.58 1.7 4.70 13.8
Interaction (FXJ) 2.18 4.7 0.32 0.7 8.16 17.6 1.65 3.5 2.07 4.5 16.87 36.4

 

Where, J1 – Jeevamruta application @ 550 l ha-1 at transplanting stage

J2 – Jeevamruta application @ 550 l ha-1 at transplanting + flowering stage

J3 – Jeevamruta application @ 550 l ha-1 at transplanting + flowering + fruit initiation stage

 

 

Table 4. Effect of graded levels of fertilizers and jeevamruta application on economics of dry chilli

Cost (Rs ha -1) Gross Returns (Rs ha-1) Net Returns (Rs ha-1) B:C ratio
Fertilizer Dose Jeevamruta Application
J 1 J 2 J 3 Mean J 1 J 2 J 3 Mean J 1 J 2 J 3 Mean J 1 J 2 J 3 Mean
RDF 100 % 27900 28900 29900 28900 77825 95700 100100 91208 49925 66800 70200 62308 2.8 3.3 3.3 3.2
RDF 75 % 26400 27400 28400 27400 61380 77550 86955 75295 34980 50150 58555 47895 2.3 2.8 3.1 2.7
RDF 50 % 24900 25900 26900 25900 49060 57530 68035 58208 24160 31630 41135 32308 2.0 2.2 2.5 2.2
RDF 25 % 23400 24400 25400 24400 37785 48015 60940 48913 14385 23615 35540 24513 1.6 2.0 2.4 2.0
Organic 24200 25200 26200 25200 37730 45485 48180 43798 13530 20285 21980 18598 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.7
Control 21900 22900 23900 22900 34650 37125 43835 38537 12750 14225 19935 15637 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.7
Mean 24783 25783 26783 25783 49738 60234 68008 59327 24955 34451 41225 33544 2.0 2.3 2.5 2.3
S.Em + C.D @ 5 % S.Em + C.D @ 5 % S.Em + C.D @ 5 % S.Em + C.D @ 5 %
Main (F) 808.4 2425 702.1 2106 0.014 0.042
Sub (J) 516.9 1520 448.9 1320 0.009 0.026
Interaction (FXJ) 1855.4 4008 1611.4 3481 0.032 0.07

Where, J1 – Jeevamruta application @ 550 l ha-1 at transplanting stage

J2 – Jeevamruta application @ 550 l ha-1 at transplanting + flowering stage

J3 – Jeevamruta application @ 550 l ha-1 at transplanting + flowering + fruit initiation stage

 

 

References

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