ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Open Access
Anaytullah Siddique, Geeta Kandpal and Prasann Kumar
Department of Agronomy, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar – 144 411, Punjab, India.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2018;12(3):1655-1659 | © The Author(s). 2018
Received: 20/05/2018 | Accepted: 19/07/2018 | Published: 30/09/2018

Adverse environmental conditions impose stress in the plant, like heat, cold, salinity, heavy metal, nutrient, droughtstress; play a very prominent role to limit the plant growth and development. During the exposure of these wide ranges of stresses, plant itself changing or developing at morphological, biochemical or molecular level. During the morphological changes, plant not only reduceduration of life but also reducing plant body skeletons like shortening of plant height, while the adjustment of ion transport, carbon metabolism and synthesis of osmoregulatory compound or compatible molecules like proline, glycine betaine, sorbitol takes place at molecular level. Different kinds of compatible solutes enable to the plant to tolerate abiotic stress. Proline is one the most effective compatible molecule that produces in the wide range of organism including plant under the adverse conditions. A transcriptional characteristic known as up and down regulation of gene expression may be observed during osmotic stress. These changes may be facilitating directly by various stress condition. The up regulation in the plants result, proline accumulation under osmotic stress while down regulation result deterioration process.


Agriculture, Biotic, Cadmium, Density, Energy, Forage

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© The Author(s) 2018. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.