ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Ahmed Ismail Khalil1,2 , Mohamed Salah El-Din Hassouna1, Maha Mohamed Shaheen1, Mohamed Abdel Latif Abou Bakr3 and Ashraf Mohamed Ali Mashaly4,5
1Department of Environmental Studies, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research,
University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt.
2Department of Agricultural Engineering, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences,
King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
3Research Institute of Soils, Water and Environment, Agricultural Research Center, Alexandria, Egypt.
4Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
5Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Minia University, El-Minia, Egypt.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2014;8(1):211-224
© The Author(s). 2014
Received: 17/09/2013 | Accepted: 26/12/2013 | Published: 28/02/2014

Changes in physical, chemical, microbial and enzymatic parameters were monitored during the composting of organic fraction of municipal solid wastes under compost plant normal operating conditions (CPNOC) (pile size, moisture and turning were not adjusted) and compost plant adjusted conditions (CPAC) (pile size (1.5 m height and 3.0 m width), then moisture (40-60%) and turning (twice a week)).The results showed that the temperature  reached its maximum (71.5 and 65.5 oC) after 26 and 19 days in the CPNOC and CPAC, respectively; then decreased. The final compost is odourless and dark brown, especially in case of CPAC. Marked changes in pH were found. Organic matter (OM) and organic carbon (OC) decreased, whereas ash, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) increased and consequently C/N, C/P and C/K ratios decreased with time. The decrease was higher in case of CPAC. Also, Microbial populations (bacteria and fungi) were higher in the CPAC and bacteria were many. Activity of enzymes was higher in the CPAC. The maximum activity was at the beginning for a-amylase, after 40 days for carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and after 30 days for xylanase. The current study proves that CPNOC is not suitable for composting, whereas CPAC provides a favourable environment for microorganisms and their enzymatic activities thereby, making the final compost reached its full maturity. Generally, changes in microbial populations and enzymatic activities during composting could be used as suitable indicators to characterize the composting process and the compost maturity when combined with some physical and chemical parameters. Therefore, composting could be an appropriate technology to produce a useful product (compost) if optimum conditions are performed.


Organic fraction of municipal solid wastes, Composting, Evaluation parameters

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© The Author(s) 2014. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.