Biosurfactants are in the category of surface active molecules (or surfactants), but have a different structure and are produced by microorganisms. These molecules reduce the surface and interfacial tension in the environments of liquid and mixed with hydrocarbons that have a potential properties in biological therapy. They caused the increased solubility and removal of hydrophobic contaminants and this leads to many applications in biodegradation of these materials as well as oil recovery and the process of de-emulsification. The produced surfactants by microorganisms are preferred compared to the chemical surfactants because of biodegradation, low toxicity, very high efficacy of heat, acidity and salinity. Biosurfactants have antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral effects as well. So, Biosurfactants can be used to combat diseases caused by pathogens (including bacteria and fungi). General use and popularization of the use of these materials depend on the better understanding and abundant production of these materials on an industrial scale. Therefore, the present study was conducted aimed to isolate, identify and evaluate the activities of the bacteria producing biosurfactants from the waters of Persian Gulf coasts. First, water and sediment sampling was done from three stations in Bandar Abbas coasts. Then, the biosurfactants-producing bacteria were isolated through biochemical and phenotypic tests. Biosurfactants were isolated and surface tension and the effect of environmental conditions was tested on their activities. The results of study showed that the isolated bacterium is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This isolate reduces the surface tension from 71.1 mN/m to 21.38 mN/m. it was found that the biosurfactants are produced by this bacteria, thus this bacteria can be used to produce biosurfactants aims to help the scientific and practical improvement of industries in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Biosurfactant, Surface tension, Bandar Abbas.
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