ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Shanu Hoda, Lovely Gupta, Harshita Agarwal, Gaurav Raj, Maansi Vermani and Pooja Vijayaraghavan
Antimycotic and Drug Susceptibility Laboratory, J-3 Block, Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Sector-125, Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India.
J Pure Appl Microbiol, 2019, 13 (2): 1207-1216| Article Number: 5611
Received: 12/03/2019 | Accepted: 27/04/2019 | Published: 28/06/2019

Clinical limitations and drug-resistance are the basis of the search for new antifungal therapeutics against biofilm forming pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Cis-9-hexadecenal is a natural compound present in various plants extracts, but its antifungal activity against A. fumigatus is still unexplored. The aim of present study was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of cis-9-hexadecenal on A. fumigatus, specifically its biofilm and to assess its cytotoxicity. Broth micro-dilution method revealed that cis-9-hexadecenal inhibited 90% of planktonic growth of A. fumigatus at 0.078 mg/ml. In-vitro combinatorial effect between drug amphotericin B and cis-9-hexadecenal was studied by checkerboard assay. Cis-9-hexadecenal, in combination to amphotericin-B had additive effect and showed enhanced drug efficacy against A. fumigatus. The effect of cis-9-hexadecenal on pre-formed biofilm was analyzed through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and scanning electron microscopy. In MTT assay, minimum biofilm-eradicating concentration-80 of cis-9-hexadecenal was 0.156 mg/ml. Scanning electron micrograph showed absence of extracellular matrix and tangled hyphae in cis-9-hexadecenal treated biofilm whereas these structures were present in both untreated and amphotericin-B treated biofilm. Drug-likeness was predicted through in-silico ADMET studies. The study envisaged that cis-9-hexadecenal followed Lipinski’s rule but had a higher Log P value indicating that it’s not hydrophilic. The compound can be modified to enhance the absorption and permeation. Cell cytotoxicity study exhibited that cis-9-hexadecenal was not toxic to normal human lung epithelial cell line L-132 upto 0.62 mg/ml. The study concluded that cis-9-hexadecenal might be explored further as a potential therapeutic molecule for A. fumigatus associated diseases.


Biofilm, Aspergillus fumigatus, natural compound, cis-9-hexadecenal, cytotoxicity.

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© The Author(s) 2019. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.