Open Access
K.D. Mevada , Prakash Gamar, K.C. Ombase, R.S. Bhadane and P.D. Patel
Department of Agronomy, B. A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand (Gujarat)- 388110, India.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2017;11(3):1559-1565
https://doi.org/10.22207/JPAM.11.3.41 | © The Author(s). 2017
Received: 20/07/2017 | Accepted: 12/09/2017 | Published: 30/09/2017
Abstract

A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of integrated nutrient management practices on yield, quality and nutrient status of drilled rabi fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) during the year 2016-17 at College Agronomy Farm, Anand Agricultural University, Anand. Twelve treatment combinations comprising of various integrated nutrient management practices were tested in randomized block design with four replications in sandy loam type of soil having slightly alkaline pH, low organic carbon and available nitrogen content, medium available phosphorus and high available potassium status. Results shown that treatment with 100% N from vermi compost + bio NPK @ 1 lit ha-1 produced significantly higher seed yield which was found comparable with all the treatments barring those applied with 50% RDF along with 50% N from compost or vermi compost as well as 50% RDF + 25% N from compost and vermi compost. Significantly highest microbial population was also found in the same treatment. Though available nitrogen and phosphorus were remained unaffected by IMN treatments, nitrogen content in seed and its uptake in seed as well as in stover had been affected significantly. Conversely, only phosphorus uptake in stover was found significantly vary due to different INM practices.

Keywords

INM, fennel, Nutrient status, Bio NPK.

Introduction

India is world’s largest producer, consumer and exporter of the spices and among all the spices fennel is one of the most important spices. India occupies prime position in fennel and plays very important role in earning foreign exchange through export of the seed spice. Gujarat being the major fennel producing states in India along with Rajasthan, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, ranks first with respect to production and productivity in India and abroad. Gujarat produces 82% of total production of fennel in India with 14500 ha area under cultivation with production of 21200 t and productivity of 1462 kg ha-1 in 2013-14 (Anon. 2016).

Fennel is raised profitably as a drilled crop in Gujarat. Area under rabi direct seeded fennel is increasing day by day, because it is more profitable as a winter direct seeded crop. In spite of this fact, the productivity of rabi fennel is low as compared to its potential yield of 2500 kg ha-1. The reason for low productivity is lack of adoption of ideal agronomic practices including nutrient management for rabi drilled fennel. Integration of organic and inorganic sources of nutrient system not only augments yield, but also improves soil nutrient status by improving microbial activities. As there is a dearth of such study under middle Gujarat conditions the experiment was conducted.

Materials and Methods

A field experiment was carried out at at College Agronomy Farm, Anand Agricultural University, Anand during rabi 2016-17 to study the influence of integrated nutrient management practices on yield, quality and nutrient status of drilled rabi fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) on sandy loam type of soils having slightly alkaline pH (8.1), low organic carbon (0.49 %) and available nitrogen (230.50 kg N ha-1), medium available phosphorus (39.56 kg P2O5 ha-1) and high available potash (315.40 kg K2O ha-1). Total twelve treatment combinations comprising of integrated nutrient management viz., T1: 100 % RDF (90 kg N-45 kg P2O5-00 kg K2O  ha-1), T2: 75% RDF+ 25% N from compost,T3: 75% RDF + 25% N from vermi compost, T4: 50% RDF + 50% N from compost, T5: 50% RDF +50% N from vermi compost, T6: 50% RDF + 25% N from compost + 25% N from vermi compost,  T7: 50 % RDF + 50% N from compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1, T8:  50 % RDF + 50% N from vermi compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit. ha-1, T9:  100% N from Compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit. ha-1, T10: 100% N from vermi compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit. ha-1, T11: 100% N from Compost and T12: 100% N from Vermi compost were tested in randomized block design with four replications. Entire quantity of compost, vermi compost, bio NPK and phosphorus and 50 % nitrogen were applied at the time of sowing, whereas, 50 % of nitrogen was top dressed 30 DAS as per treatment. All other agronomic practices were followed as per schedule.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Seed and Stover yield
Data pertaining to seed and stover yields (table-1) exhibited substantial differences due to different integrated nutrient management practices. Results showed significant influence of INM treatments, wherein, treatment T10 (100% N from vermi compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit. ha-1), being at par with all the treatments barring T4 (50% RDF + 50% N from compost), T5 (50% RDF +50% N from vermi compost) and T6 (50% RDF + 25% N from compost + 25% N from vermi compost) produced significantly higher seed yield (2085 kg ha-1).

The inference of data also indicated that 100% N from vermi compost + Bio NPK (T10) and 100 % N from compost+ Bio NPK(T9) produced 5.89 % and 3.30% higher yield compared to 100% RDF(T1) through fertilizers, respectively. Further, it was also revealed that all the treatments with vermi compost gave higher seed yield over compost treatments. Treatment (T10) reported 18.56 % higher seed yield over lowest producing treatment T5.

Almost similar trend was observed for stover yield and treatment T10 (100 % N from Vermi compost+ Bio NPK), being at par with T9, T6, T4, T3 and T8, produced significantly higher stover yield (3085 kg ha-1). Treatment T10 secured 27.39 % higher yield compared to lowest stover producing treatment T6.

The seed and stover yields being functions of growth and yield attributes improved significantly due to the cumulative effect of these attributes. The beneficial effect on yield attributes might be also due to increased supply of all the essential nutrients by vermi compost which might be resulted into improved assimilation of photosynthates, which subsequently partitioning to sink. The findings of present investigation are supported by those of Selvarajan and Chezhiyan (2001) and Khoja (2004). Application of vermi compost @ 2 t ha-1 along with bio NPK significantly increased yield attributes and yield. Bio-fertilizers add nutrients through the natural processes of nitrogen fixation and stimulating plant growth through synthesis of growth promoting substances and might have positively influenced the crop yield. The beneficial role of supplemented organic manures and bio-fertilizers in improving soil physical, chemical and biological role is well known, which in turn helps in better nutrient absorption by plants and resulting higher yield. Similar results were published by Prabu et al., (2002) and Pariari et al. (2015). The significant enhancement in seed yield with the addition of vermi compost might be due to its positive impact on maintaining balanced source and sink relationship. Moreover, vermi compost might have increased the efficiency of added chemical fertilizer in soil, activities of N fixing bacteria and increased rate of humification. Humic acid in vermi compost might have enhanced the availability of both native and added nutrients in soil and as a result improved growth and yield attributes and yield of the crop significantly. This might due to positive response of nitrogen and phosphorus increased availability of phosphorus in soil, being a major structural element of cell and helped in cell elongation, greater availability of photosynthates, metabolites and nutrients to develop reproductive structures which ascribed to increased growth parameters and lead to higher yield attributes and yields of fennel crop. These findings are in agreement with those of Koyani et al. (2014).

Harvest index as influenced due to INM treatments (Table 1) demonstrated identical impact indicating equal proportion of seed and stalk yields under each treatment.

Oil content (%)
The data pertaining oil content (%) influenced by the integrated nutrient management practices presented in table 1 revealed that INM treatments exerted noticeable influence on oil content of fennel seed, wherein, treatment T10 (100 % N from vermi compost + Bio NPK @ 1 lit ha-1) produced significantly higher oil content (1.98%) along with treatments T9 (1.89 %), T12 (1.85%) and T6 (1.87%).

It has been reported by Singh and Ramesh (2002) that fennel oil content increased by organic and inorganic fertilizers. Moradi et al., (2011) demonstrated that organic matters such as vermi compost can improve soil structure, improving root development, providing plant nutrients and enhancing nutrient uptake by plants. Furthermore, Mahfouz and Sharaf-Eldin (2007) reported that free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria viz; Azospirillum lipoferum have not only the ability to fix nitrogen but also release phyto-hormones similar to gibberellic acid and indole acetic acid, which could stimulate plant growth, absorption of nutrients and photosynthesis with subsequent improvement of yield and essential oil components of sweet fennel. Darzi et al., (2013) reported that essential oil yield of fennel seeds increased significantly by increasing the vermi compost. It was demonstrated that vermi compost supplied phosphate and nitrogen to the soil, giving a more balanced nutritional status than mineral fertilizers.

Microbial population
Data presented in table-1 revealed significant impact of integrated nutrient management on microbial population and treatment T10 (100 % N from vermi compost+ Bio NPK 1.0 lit. ha-1) recorded significantly the highest micro-organism status (206 × 106)  over rest of the treatments.
Table (1):
Fennel yield and other characters as influenced by integrated nutrient management of drilled rabi fennel.

Treatment
Seed
yield
(kg ha-1)
Stover
yield
(kg ha-1)
Harvest index
(%)
Oil content
(%)
Microbial population (cfu×106)
T1 : 100 % RDF (90 kg N-45 kg P2O5-00 kg K2O ha-1)
1962
2947
40.13
1.74
46
T2 : 75% RDF+ 25% N from compost
1925
2755
40.92
1.83
62
T3 : 75% RDF + 25% N from vermi compost
1935
2768
40.96
1.74
81
T4 : 50% RDF + 50% N from compost
1698
2247
43.06
1.83
72
T5 : 50% RDF +50% N from vermi compost
1786
2555
41.04
1.63
139
T6 : 50 % RDF + 25% N from compost + 25% N from vermi compost
1470
2240
39.58
1.87
182
T7 : 50 % RDF + 50% N from compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1
1861
2575
42.39
1.79
65
T8 : 50 % RDF + 50% N from vermi compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1
1884
2643
41.68
1.79
67
T9 : 100% N from compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1
2029
2983
40.37
1.89
189
T10 :100% N from vermi compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1
2085
3085
40.38
1.98
206
T11: 100% N from compost
1937
2806
40.79
1.72
43
T12 :100% N from vermi compost
1955
2933
40.28
1.85
45
S. Em ±
98
143
1.84
0.05
2.35
C. D. at 5%
281
412
NS
0.14
6.77
C. V. %
10.41
10.56
9.01
5.38
4.73

The higher soil microbial population and the consequent better availability of nutrients attributed to the production of higher seed yield of fennel in plots treated with combination of organic, inorganic and microbial inoculants (Vyas et al., 2016).

Nutrient status
Nitrogen and phosphorus content in seed and Stover
Nitrogen content in seed of fennel was found noticeably influenced due to different INM treatments (Table 2) and  treatment T10 (100% N from vermi compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1) which being at par with all treatments except T4 (50% RDF + 50% N from compost), T5 (50% RDF +50% N from vermi compost),T6 (50% RDF + 25% N from compost + 25% N from vermi compost),T7 (50 % RDF + 50% N from compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1) and T8 (50 % RDF + 50% N from vermi compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1) contained significantly higher nitrogen content (1.48%). However, the N content in stover was found non- significant. Phosphorus content (%) in seed and stover was found identical in different INM treatments (Table 2).
Table (2):
Nitrogen and phosphorus content as influenced by integrated nutrient management of drilled rabi fennel.

Treatment N Content (%) P Content (%)
Seed Stover Seed Stover
T1 : 100 % RDF (90 kg N-45 kg P2O5-00 kg K2O ha-1) 1.47 0.25 0.25 0.22
T2 : 75% RDF+ 25% N from compost 1.43 0.26 0.25 0.22
T3 : 75% RDF + 25% N from vermi compost 1.42 0.26 0.26 0.22
T4 : 50% RDF + 50% N from compost 1.24 0.26 0.26 0.23
T5 : 50% RDF +50% N from vermi compost 1.35 0.26 0.26 0.22
T6 : 50 % RDF + 25% N from compost + 25% N from vermi compost 1.37 0.26 0.26 0.23
T7 : 50 % RDF + 50% N from compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1 1.39 0.26 0.26 0.22
T8 : 50 % RDF + 50% N from vermi compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1 1.39 0.26 0.26 0.22
T9 : 100% N from compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1 1.41 0.27 0.27 0.23
T10 :100% N from vermi compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1 1.48 0.25 0.28 0.22
T11: 100% N from compost 1.44 0.25 0.25 0.21
T12 :100% N from vermi compost 1.42 0.24 0.24 0.21
S. Em ± 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.01
C. D. at 5% 0.07 NS NS NS
C. V. % 3.96 3.91 4.80 4.59

Since content of a nutrient is a function of concentration and yield, the increase in seed and stover yield coupled with increased nutrient concentration resulted in higher total content of nitrogen and phosphorus with the supply of 100% N from vermi compost+ Bio NPK and 100% N from compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1. The increased fennel seed and stover nutrients content resulted in higher yield recorded with these combinations as compared to other treatment combinations. Higher photosynthetic activity in plant as evident from increase in biomass accumulation at successive duration and plant height reveals higher availability of metabolites from shoot to root. This might have promoted growth of root as well as their functional activity resulting in higher extraction of nutrients from soil environment to aerial parts.

The results might be due to the influence of N on the ribosome structure and the biosynthesis of some hormones viz; gibberellines, auxins and cytokinins, involved in protein synthesis. Increase in N uptake at higher levels and also nitrogen as a part of amino acid, which constitutes building blocks of protein and that might have resulted in higher protein content. Similar increasing with N application was also reported by Bhardwaj (2014) in fennel.

Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake in seed and stover
Results presented in table-3 revealed that nitrogen uptake by fennel seed and stover was found appreciably influenced due to INM treatments, wherein, treatment T10 (100 % N from vermi compost+ Bio NPK) being at par with all treatments barring T4 (50% RDF + 50% N from compost), T5(50% RDF +50% N from vermi compost), T6(50% RDF + 25% N from compost + 25% N from vermi compost), T7 (50 % RDF + 50% N from compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1) and T8 (50 % RDF + 50% N from vermi compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1), had higher nitrogen uptake in seed (31.29 kg ha-1). Nitrogen uptake in  stover was found significantly maximum (26.16 kg ha-1) in treatment T9 (100% N from compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1), however, it was found at par with all the treatments except T4,T5, T6 and T7.
Table (3):
Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake as influenced by integrated nutrient management of drilled rabi fennel.

Treatment N uptake
(kg ha-1)
P uptake
(kg ha-1)
Seed Stover Seed Stover
T1 : 100 % RDF (90 kg N-45 kg P2O5-00 kg K2O ha-1) 28.91 24.57 4.33 6.33
T2 : 75% RDF+ 25% N from compost 27.63 23.73 4.30 6.82
T3 : 75% RDF + 25% N from vermi compost 27.45 23.47 4.28 5.95
T4 : 50% RDF + 50% N from compost 21.14 19.40 3.86 5.68
T5 : 50% RDF +50% N from vermi compost 24.13 21.89 4.01 5.94
T6 : 50 % RDF + 25% N from compost + 25% N from vermi compost 20.21 19.72 3.35 5.88
T7 : 50 % RDF + 50% N from compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1 25.94 22.00 4.16 5.80
T8 : 50 % RDF + 50% N from vermi compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1 26.18 22.47 4.18 5.92
T9 : 100% N from compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1 28.56 26.16 4.67 8.59
T10 :100% N from vermi compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1 31.22 25.60 4.63 6.54
T11: 100% N from compost 27.85 23.21 4.04 4.97
T12 :100% N from vermi compost 27.93 23.39 4.06 5.07
S. Em ± 1.45 1.24 0.26 0.35
C. D. at 5% 4.16 3.56 NS 0.99
C. V. % 10.95 10.76 12.38 11.27

It was further revealed that though INM treatments did not exert any influential impact on phosphorus uptake by fennel seed, however, it was found noticeably affected for uptake by stover and treatment T­10­ (100% N from vermi compost+ Bio NPK lit. ha-1) had significantly the highest P uptake (8.59kg ha-1).

The nutrient uptake is a function of yield and nutrient concentration in plant. Thus, significant improvement in uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus might be attributed to their concentration in seed and stover and associated with higher seed and stover yield. This might also be attributed to better availability of nutrients in the soil under these treatments. The results of present investigation are in close agreement with the findings of Shivanna et al., (2009), Uttam (2013) and Patel et al.(2013).

Nitrogen and phosphorus status
The data on available nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil just after harvest of the fennel as influenced by the integrated nutrient management practices presented in Table 4 indicated non-significant effect of integrated nutrient management practices. This might be due to reduced nutrient loss when inorganic and organic fertilizers were applied in combinations which improved the availability of soil nutrients. Shivran and Jat (2015) reported progressive rise in available N through organic sources alone.
Table (4):
Available nitrogen and phosphorus status in soil as influenced by integrated nutrient management of drilled rabi fennel.

Treatment
Available
N
(kg ha-1)
Available
P2O5
(kg ha-1)
T2 : 75% RDF+ 25% N from compost
248.18
53.14
T3 : 75% RDF + 25% N from vermi compost
259.37
49.89
T4 : 50% RDF + 50% N from compost
258.93
53.11
T5 : 50% RDF +50% N from vermi compost
254.90
52.09
T6 : 50 % RDF + 25% N from compost + 25% N from vermi compost
255.78
53.32
T7 : 50 % RDF + 50% N from compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1
248.83
51.61
T8 : 50 % RDF + 50% N from vermi compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1
252.12
52.08
T9 : 100% N from compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1
248.05
53.72
T10 :100% N from vermi compost + Bio NPK @ 1.0 lit ha-1
246.18
49.32
T11: 100% N from compost
263.50
49.14
T12 :100% N from vermi compost
262.00
48.86
S. Em ±
6.77
1.29
C. D. at 5%
NS
NS
C. V. %
5.32
5.01
CONCLUSION

In light of the above investigation it can be concluded that recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF: 90 kg N- 45 kg P2O5 – 45 kg K2O kg ha-1) was found analogous with 75% + 25 % N from either compost or vermi compost. For organic sources, 100% N with either compost or vermi compost with or without bio NPK were also found comparable with RDF. As far as content and uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus are concerned, 100% N from compost or vermi compost with or without Bio NPK @ 1 lit ha-1 was found comparable with 100% RDF i.e. 90-45-00 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1.

References
  1. Anonymous (2016) http://www.srkspices.com
  2. Bhardwaj, R. L., and Kumar, D. Effect of varying levels of nitrogen on growth, yield, quality and profitability of transplanted fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops, 2016; 25(2).
  3. Darzi, M. T., Shirkhodaei, M. and Mohammadreza H.H. Effects of vermin compost and Azotobactor and azospirillum bacteria on quantity and quality of essential oil of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.).International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences, 2013; 2(5): 1277-1283.
  4. Khoja, J.R. Effect of sowing time and sources of nitrogen on growth, thermal requirement, yield and quality of coriander [Coriandrum sativum (L.)]. Ph.D. Thesis Rajasthan Agricultural University, Campus-Jobner 2004.
  5. Koyani, C. R., , Chovatia, P. K. and Gohil, B. S. Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Growth, Yield Attributes and Yields of rabi Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Agriculture: Towards a New Paradigm of Sustainability, 2014; 167.
  6. Mahfouz, S.A., and Sharaf-Eldin, M.A. Effect of mineral and bio-fertilizer on growth, yield and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) International Agro-physics, 2007; 21: 361-366.
  7. Moradi, R., RezvaniMoghaddam, P., NajiriMahallti, M. and A. Nezhadali. Effects of organic and biological fertilizers on fruit yield and essential oil of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce). Spanish Journal of Agriculture Research, 2011; 9(2): 546-553.
  8. Pariari, A., Mukherjee, A., & Das, S. Growth and yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) as influenced by integrated nitrogen management and spacing. Journal of Crop and Weed, 2015; 11 (2), 90-93.
  9. Patel, S.G., Amin, A.V., Patel, S.P. Agalodiya and Patel, S.M. Effect of different sources of organic manures and without bio fertilizers in cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) SardarKrushinagar, Dantiwada Agriculture University. International Journal of Seed Spices, 2013; 3(2).
  10. Prabu, T., Narwadkar, P.R., Sajindranath, A.K. and Rathod, N.G. Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of coriander (Coriandrum sativum Linn.). South Indian Horticulture, 2002; 50(4-6): 680-684.
  11. Selvarajan, M. and Chezhiyan, N. Effect of Azospirillum in combination with different levels of nitrogen on growth and yield of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) South Indian Horticulture, 2001; 49: 173-174.
  12. Shivanna, M.B., Ramesh, G. and A. Santa Ram. Influence of organics and biofertilizers on the growth and yield of kalmegh (Andrographispaniculata) Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic plant Sciences, 2009; 32(3): 251-256.
  13. Shivran, A. C., and Jat, N. L. Integrated nutrient management influenced growth, yield and economics of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) under semi-arid conditions. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 2015; 60(2), 318-323.
  14. Singh, M. and S. Ramesh. Response of sweet basil (ocimunbasilicum) to organic & inorganic fertilizer in semi-arid tropical conditions GKVK campus Banglore Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences, 2002; 24: 947-950.
  15. UttamVasoya J., Effect of Organic manure and Bio-fertilizer on growth and yield of Direct Seeded Rabi Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). M.sc, Thesis submitted Junagadh Agriculture University 2013.
  16. Vyas, R. V., Shelat, H. N., Jhala, Y. K., Patel, H. K. and Pandya, H. A. Accomplishments on agriculturally beneficial micro-organisms for sustainable agriculture 2016.

Article Metrics

Article View: 2897

Share This Article

© The Author(s) 2017. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.