K.D. Mevada1, S.J. Chaudhary1, K.C. Ombase1 and
M.M. Chaudhary2

1Department of Agronomy, BACA, AAU, Anand, Gujarat, India.
2Agricultural Officer, NIRP, AAU, Khandha, Gujarat, India.

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was carried out at Agronomy Farm, B. A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat during the summer season of the year 2015 to study the effect of time of sowing, row spacing and variety on summer cluster bean under middle Gujarat conditions, in loamy sand soil. Eighteen treatment combinations comprised of three dates of sowing viz., D1: (21st January); D2: (1st February) and D3: (11th February) as main plot treatments and combination of three different row spacing viz., S1: 30 cm; S2: 45 cm; and S3: 60 cm along with two varieties V1 (GG 1) and V2 (GG 2) as sub plot treatments, were laid out in Split Plot Design with three replications. Results revealed that treatment combination D3S1V2 (sowing on 11th February with 30 cm row spacing with variety GG 2) recorded significantly higher seed yield (1476 kg ha-1) which was found at par with treatment combination D2S3V2 (sowing on 1st February with 60 cm row spacing with variety GG 2). However, maximum net realization (Rs.50667 ha-1) and BCR (4.53) were obtained under treatment combination D2S3V2, followed by D3S1V2 with net realization of Rs.48511 ha-1 and BCR of 4.24.

Keywords: Time of sowing, row spacing, variety, cluster bean.

INTRODUCTION

Cluster bean (Cymopsistetragonoloba (L.)Taub.)is an important  self pollinated, multipurpose, drought resistant leguminous crop,cultivated in arid and semi-arid areas of about 23.30 mollion hectare in India producing 1.22 million tone of cluster bean with productivity of 584 kg ha-1(Anon.,2014).Rajasthan is the largest Cluster bean producing states in the world as it dominates the Indian production scenario contributing to around 4.2 lakh tons i.e. over 70% of the total production in India.It is cultivated in 3.18 lakh hectares in Gujarat with 1.91 lakh tone production with productivity of 602 kg ha-1(Anon., 2015).Its cultivation mainly confines the districts of Banaskantha, Sabarkantha, Kutch, Mehsana, Gandhinagar, Patan and Kheda.However, its productivity during kharif season is low due to uneven and erratic distribution of rainfall in these areas as well as incidence of pests and diseases. For exploiting yield potential of cluster bean its cultivation is shifted to summer season.Among the various management factors contributing to growth and development of cluster bean, non-monetary inputs like time of sowing, row spacing and selection of variety play vital role in summer season. The cardinal range for cluster bean being 15-350 C, early or late sowing may impact its germination and growth. The late sowing in summer may face the risk of rainfall during ensuing monsoon season at maturity. High or low density sowing may have lead to poor yield performances.Varieties of cluster bean viz. Gujarat Guar 1 (GG 1) and Gujarat Guar 2 (GG 2) have been released by G.A.U., S.K. Nagar, which have been found suitable for cultivation during summer season in north Gujarat conditions. But the performance of cluster bean varieties at varied time of sowing and row spacing have not been evaluated for middle Gujarat conditions in summer season. Therefore, this experiment was conducted.

 

MATERIALS AND METHOD

A field experiment was carried out at Agronomy Farm, B. A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat during the summer season of the year 2015 to study the effect of time of sowing, row spacing and variety on summer cluster bean under middle Gujarat conditions, in loamy sand soil, low in organic carbon (0.35%), medium in available phosphorous (43.28 kg P2O5 ha-1) and high in available potash (388.17 kg K2O ha-1). Eighteen treatment combinations comprised of three dates of sowing viz., D1: (21st January); D2: (1st February) and D3: (11th February) as main plot treatments and combination of three different row spacing viz., S1: 30 cm; S2: 45 cm; and S3: 60 cm along with two varieties V1 (GG 1) and V2 (GG 2) as sub plot treatments, were laid out in Split Plot Design with three replications.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Effect of time of sowing:

 

A perusal of data presented in table-1 revealed that sowing on 1st February (D2) being at par with sowing on 11th February (D3) gave significantly higher plant height at 30 (32.31 cm), 60 DAS (56.47cm) and at harvest (82.97cm) and for test weight (38.90 g) of cluster bean over sowing on 21st January (D1). Conversely, crop sown on 11th February (D3) produced significantly the highest branches plant-1 (6.01), pods plant-1(43.92), seeds pod-1 (7.96) and pod length (9.11 cm) over early sowing on 1st February (D2) and 21st January (D1). Better growth of plant in terms of plant height under late sowing on 1st February (D2) and 11th February (D3) reflected into better development of yield attributes. Moreover, congenial climatic conditions especially at reproductive phase also played vital role in development of yield attributes due to positive sink to source ratio wherein assimilates translocation to reproductive components. These findings are substantiated with those reported by Patel et al., (2004) and Vishal et al., (2014).

Table 1 :Effect of time of sowing, row spacing and variety on various growth and yield attributes of Cluster bean

 

Treatments Plant height (cm) Number of branches plant-1 Number of pods plant-1 Pod length (cm) Number of seeds pod-1 Test weight (g)
30 DAS 60 DAS At Harvest
Time of sowing (D)
D1 : 21st  January 27.29 51.44 75.26 5.42 32.96 6.51 5.47 35.54
D2 : 1st  February 32.31 56.47 82.97 5.47 34.86 7.97 6.73 38.90
D3: 11th February 31.99 55.08 81.24 6.01 43.92 9.11 7.96 38.79
S.Em ± 0.61 0.92 1.49 0.10 0.95 0.26 0.30 0.61
C.D. at 5% 2.40 3.63 5.87 0.41 3.73 1.04 1.18 2.41
C.V. % 8.50 7.21 7.95 7.78 10.83 14.28 18.93 6.90
Row spacing (S)
S1 : 30 cm 30.03 55.96 82.04 5.52 36.88 7.54 6.40 38.23
S2 : 45 cm 30.76 53.47 78.63 5.66 37.14 7.80 6.62 37.32
S3 : 60 cm 30.81 53.57 78.79 5.72 37.72 8.24 7.13 37.68
S.Em ± 0.61 0.69 1.04 0.10 0.70 0.18 0.18 0.60
C.D. at 5% NS 2.01 2.99 NS NS 0.52 0.52 NS
Variety (V)
V1 : GG 1 34.38 60.12 88.39 5.13 33.60 6.44 5.37 33.63
V2 : GG 2 26.69 48.54 71.25 6.13 40.89 9.28 8.07 41.86
S.Em ± 0.50 0.57 0.85 0.08 0.57 0.15 0.15 0.49
C.D. at 5% 1.44 1.64 2.45 0.24 1.65 0.43 0.43 1.42
C. V. % 8.49 5.43 5.51 7.59 7.98 9.76 11.43 6.76

 

 

 

 

Table 2:Effect of time of sowing, row spacing and variety on seed and stalk yield and harvest index of Cluster bean

 

Treatments Seed yield

(kg ha-1)

Stalk yield

(kg ha-1)

Harvest index (%)
Time of sowing (D)
D1 : 21st  January 848 3944 19.50
D2 : 1st  February 1027 5043 17.34
D3: 11th February 979 4450 19.56
S.Em ± 33 176 0.58
C.D. at 5% 131 692 NS
C.V. % 14.87 16.69 13.00
Row spacing (S)
S1 : 30 cm 996 4859 18.76
S2 : 45 cm 916 4178 18.41
S3 : 60 cm 942 4400 19.22
S.Em ± 23 126 0.55
C.D. at 5% NS 364 NS
Variety (V)
V1 : GG 1 658 5392 11.00
V2 : GG 2 1245 3566 26.59
S.Em ± 18 103 0.45
C.D. at 5% 53 298 1.30
C. V. % 10.07 11.95 12.44

 

 

 

 

 Table 3 (a): Interaction effect of time of sowing and variety on various growth and yield attributes of Cluster bean

 

Time of sowing (D) Plant height (cm)

30 DAS

Pod length (cm) Number of seeds pod-1 Stalk yield (kg ha-1) Harvest index (%)
  Variety (V)
  V1 :GG1 V2 :GG2 V1 :GG1 V2 :GG2 V1 :GG1 V2 :GG2 V1:GG1 V2 : GG2 V1 :GG1 V2 :GG2
D1 : 21st  January 28.84 25.74 5.65 7.36 4.71 6.22 5066 2823 10.03 28.96
D2 : 1st  February 37.13 27.49 6.40 9.54 5.33 8.13 5520 4565 12.28 22.39
D3:11th February 37.17 26.82 7.28 10.95 6.07 9.84 5589 3310 10.70 28.42
S. Em ± 1.06 0.31 0.31 178 0.78
C.D. at 5% 3.06 0.90 0.91 515 2.25

 

Table 3 (b): Interaction effect of time of sowing and row spacing on seed yield and harvest index of Cluster bean

 

Time of sowing (D) Seed yield kg ha-1 Harvest index (%)
Row spacing (S)
S1 : 30 cm S2 : 45 cm S3 : 60 cm S1 : 30 cm S2 : 45 cm S3 : 60 cm
D1 : 21st  January 943 798 804 19.29 18.98 20.22
D2 : 1st  February 961 1056 1063 14.93 18.73 18.35
D3:11th February 1085 894 958 22.05 17.52 19.10
S. Em ± 32   0.95  
C.D. at 5% 92   2.76  

 

Table 3 (c): Interaction effect of row spacing and variety on number of pod plant-1, seed yield and harvest index of Cluster bean

 

Row spacing (S) Number of pod plant-1 Seed yield kg ha-1 Harvest index (%)
Variety (V)
V1 :GG1 V2:GG2 V1 GG1 V2:GG2 V1 :GG1 V2 :GG2
S1 : 30 cm 35.14 38.61 665 1327 9.99 27.52
S2 : 45 cm 32.73 41.54 670 1162 12.60 24.23
S3 : 60 cm 32.93 42.51 639 1245 10.42 28.02
S. Em ± 0.99   32   0.78  
C.D. at 5% 2.86   92   2.25  

 

 

Table 3 (d): Interaction effect of time of sowing, row spacing and variety on seed yield of cluster bean

 

Time of sowing (D) Row spacing (S) (Seed yield kg ha-1)
Variety (V)
V1 : GG 1 V2 :GG 2
D1

21st January

S1 : 30 cm 624 1261
S2 : 45 cm 556 1040
S3 : 60 cm 505 1103
D2

1st February

S1 : 30 cm 678 1245
S2 : 45 cm 895 1217
S3 : 60 cm 665 1461
D3

11th February

S1 : 30 cm 694 1476
S2 : 45 cm 558 1231
S3 : 60 cm 746 1170
S. Em ± 55
C.D. at 5% 160

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4: Economics of cluster bean as influenced by time of sowing, spacing and variety

 

Treatments
Seed yield

(kg ha-1)

Stalk yield

(kg ha-1)

Gross Income

(Rs. ha-1)

Total cost of cultivation

(Rs. ha-1)

Net realization (Rs.ha-1)
BCR
D1S1 V1
624
5521
33242
14957
18285
2.22
D1S1V2
1261
3194
55231
14957
40274
3.69
D1S2V1
556
4537
29046
14657
14389
1.98
D1S2V2
1040
2809
45814
14657
31157
3.13
D1S3V1
505
5139
27909
14357
13552
1.94
D1S3V2
1103
2465
47818
14357
33461
3.33
D2S1V1
678
6688
37152
14957
22195
2.48
D2S1V2
1245
4820
57030
14957
42073
3.81
D2S2V1
895
4808
43012
14657
28355
2.93
D2S2V2
1217
4486
55409
14657
40752
3.78
D2S3V1
665
5065
34198
14357
19841
2.38
D2S3V2
1461
4389
65024
14357
50667
4.53
D3S1V1
694
5979
36729
14957
21772
2.46
D3S1V2
1476
2952
63468
14957
48511
4.24
D3S2V1
558
4537
29126
14657
14469
1.99
D3S2V2
1231
3889
55074
14657
40417
3.76
D3S3V1
746
6250
39215
14357
24858
2.73
D3S3V2
1170
3090
51435
14357
37078
3.58

 

Selling Price: Seed –Rs. 40  kg-1,  Stalk –Rs. 1.5kg-1

 

 

Similartrend was observed for seed and stalk yield. The impact of different time of sowing on seed and stalk yield of cluster bean reported in table 2 indicated that 1st February sowing (D2), being at par with 11th February sowing(D3)produced significantly higher seed (1027 kg ha-1) as well as stalk (5043 kg ha-1) yield which were 21.12 % and 27.87 % higher over 21stJanuary sowing (D1), respectively. Higher seed and stalk yield under treatments D2 (1st February) and D3 (11th February) over D1 (21st January) might be attributed to enhanced yield attributes in later sowing over early sowing under favorable weather conditions which might induced photosynthetic activity and translocation of assimilates which was reflected in augmentinggermination, plant height and ultimately had complimentaryimpact on number of branches plant-1, pod development and seed formation (Kalyani ,2012).

Harvest index (Table 2) was found unchanged due to different time of sowing. However, maximum harvest index (19.56 %) was reported under sowing on 11th February (D3).

 

Effect of row spacing:

 

Results given in table-1 and table-2 revealed that significantly the highest plant height at 60 DAS (55.96 cm) and at harvest (82.04 cm) and stalk yield (4859 kg ha-1) were obtained when crop sown at 30 cm spacing (S1) over rest of the treatments. Nevertheless, crop sown at 60 cm spacing (S3) being at par with 45 cm spacing (S2) produced significantly higher pod length (8.24 cm) and seeds pod-1 (7.13) over 30 cm spacing (S1). Plant height at 30 DAS, branches plant-1, pods plant-1, test weight (g), seed yield (kg ha-1) and harvest index (%) were found statistically at par due to different row spacing.Under wider spacing some of the yield components might have been increased on individual plant basis but would have been decreased on per unit area basis, while under narrow spacing though number of plants per unit area might have been increased, but the yield components might have been declined on individual basis and eventually the biological yield was reduced. A similar result was obtained by Machado et al., (2003).

 

Effect of variety:

 

In the present experiment different varieties showed imperial impact on all the growth parameters, yield attributing characters and yield (Table 1 and Table-2). Variety GG 2 (V2) proved statistically superior over variety GG1 (V1) in all the aspects barring periodical plant height and stalk yield.  Significantly maximum branches plant-1 (6.13), pods plant-1 (40.89), pod length (9.28 cm), number of seeds pod-1 (8.07),test weight (41.86 g), seed yield (1245 kg ha-1) and harvest index (26.59 %) were recorded under variety GG 2 (V2) over GG 1 (V1) . On the other hand, variety GG 1 (V1) exhibited higher plant height at 30 DAS (34.38 cm), 60 DAS (60.12 cm) and at harvest (88.39 cm) and produced higher stalk yield (5392 kg ha‑1) over variety GG 2 (V1). Variety GG 2(V2) produced 89 % higher seed yield over variety GG 1(V1). This can be attributed to higher biomass accumulation coupled with effective translocation and distribution of photosynthesis from source to sink (Patel et al., 2010).

 

Interaction effect:

 

Interaction effect between D X V was found significant (Table 3(a)) for plant height at 30 DAS, pod length, seeds pod-1, stalk yield and harvest index. Treatment combination D3V1 (sowing on 11th February with GG 1) being at par with treatment combination  D2V1 (sowing on 1st January with GG 1) reported significantly higher plant height (37.17 cm) as well  as stalk yield (5589 kg ha-1). However, in case of pod length and number of seeds pod-1, treatment combination D3V2 (sowing on 11th February with GG 2) out right produced highest pod length (10.95 cm) and number of seeds pod-1(9.84). Significantly higher harvest index (28.96) was reported under treatment combination D1V2, which remained at par with D3V2.

Interaction between D X S (Table 3(b)) were found significant for seed yield as well as harvest index, wherein treatment combination D3S2 (sowing on 11th February at 30 cm row spacing) gave significantly higher seed yield (1085 kg ha-1) and harvest index (22.05 %). Nevertheless, it remained at with D2S2 and D2S3 for seed yield and with D1S3 and D1S1 for harvest index.

Number of pod plant-1, seed yield as well as harvest index were found significantly influenced due to interaction between S X V (Table 3 (c)) and treatment combination S3V2 gave appreciably higher Number of pod plant-1(42.51), seed yield (1245 kg ha-1) and  harvest index (28.02 %).

The perusal of result given in table 3(d) revealed that treatment combination D3S1V2 (cluster bean variety GG 2 sown on 11th  February with 30 cm row spacing ), being at par with D2S3V2(cluster bean variety GG 2 sown on 1st February with 60 cm row spacing) produced significantly higher seed yield (1476 kg ha-1) over rest of the treatment combinations.This could be also attributed to higher biomass accumulation coupled with effective translocation and distribution of photosynthates from source to sink.  The result was also supported by Sonaniet al. (2016).

 

ECONOMICS

Data pertaining to economics (Table-4) clearly indicated that the highest net realization Rs. 50667 ha-1 and BCR (4.53) were obtained under treatment combination D2S3V2,i.e. cluster bean variety GG 2 sown on 1st February with 60 cm row spacing; followed by treatment combination D3S1V2i.e. cluster bean variety GG 2 sown on 11th  February with 30 cm row spacing, with net realization ofRs.47511 ha-1 and BCR of 4.24.

 

CONCLUSION

In light of the above results it can be concluded that summer cluster bean variety GG-2 should be sown on 1st February with wider row spacing of 60 cm for getting higher yield and monetary return. In case, sowing is delayed, variety GG-2 should be sown on 11th February at narrow spacing of 30 cm.

 

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