The mycological analysis of 40 soil samples and the air at northern border region, in Saudi Arabia was studied during the period from October to December 2015. The dilution- and exposed- plate techniques and three isolation media incubated at 28°C were used for isolation of soil and air-borne fungi. Chemical analysis revealed that soil samples have very low water content and with poor total soluble salts. A total of 56 +1 variety species related to 20 genera were isolated from 40 soil samples using Cz, cellulose and 10% NaCl media incubated at 28C, while, 28 species belonging to 18 genera were encountered from the air of the four regions. In soil the hyaline fungi like Aspergillus, Penicillium, Myrothecium and Fusarium were predominant over darke-coloured ones. On the contrary, in the air, the dematiaceous fungi e.g. Alternaria, Cladosporium, Ulocladium, Phoma, Stachybotrys, Humicola and Derchslera outnumbered the hyaline ones. There was a significant difference in the occurrence and diversity of fungi recovered from soil, or air in the four studied regions. Among 6 isolates of A. flavus strains screened for aflatoxin production 3 could produce B1 & B2 and G1 & G2. Knowledge of species and density of soil and outdoor airborne fungi in the studied environment can be especially important in the diagnosis and treatment of various allergic diseases. This study provided some information regarding the soil and air borne fungal composition at the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia and suggesting a further investigation to correlate between the common human allergies among the population and the incidence of soil and airborne fungi in the environment of this region.
Aerobiota, Outdoor, Allergen, Soil fungi, Aflatoxins, Seasonal Distribution.
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