Soil health indicators are needed that help farmers to understand the chain of cause and effect that links farm decision to ultimate productivity and health of plant and animals. No single indicator was universal in describing soil property change due to the cultivation. However, there was a significant correlation between soil physical, chemical and biological indicators, which validates the holistic approach to soil health management and the need to better understanding of the flow on effects of soil management decisions. The Indo-Gangetic plain of Varanasi district was selected for the study. 24 surface soil (0-15cm) samples were collected from the cultivated land in Varanasi district and analysed for pH, EC, available N, P, K content and biological health status of soil. 22 samples having the low organic carbon status and 2 samples are medium in organic carbon. The availability of nitrogen vary from 163 to 301 kg ha-1, phosphorus ranges from 14.16 to 40.39 2 kg ha-1, while range of potassium vary 112.0 to 1358 kg ha-1. The Dehydrogenase activity of soil vary from 24.33 to 70.33 µg TPF g-1 soil day-1, urease activity of soil vary from 128.60 to 342.30 µg UH g-1 soil h-1, alkaline Phosphatase activity vary from 68.70 to 211.70 µg PNP g-1soil h-1, whereas acid Phosphatase activity from 57.30 to 162.30 µg PNP g-1soil h-1. The Soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and soil respiration values of the soils vary from 90.60 to 321.30 mg C kg-1 soil and 0.1992 to 0.5421 mg CO2-C g-1 soil day-1. Microbial Population of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in the soils vary from 14.20-42.70, 6.70-32.70 and 9.30-31.30 CFU x 106 g-1 soil respectively.
Nutrients availability, enzymatic activity, soil microbial biomass carbon, organic carbon, microbial Population
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