ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Ashwag Y. Shami
Biology Department, College of Sciences, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
J. Pure Appl. Microbiol., 2020, 14 (1): 93-102 | Article Number: 5979 | © The Author(s). 2020
Received: 04/12/2019 | Accepted: 06/02/2020 | Published: 15/02/2020

This review provides an overview regarding the main aspects of fatal bacterial infections and antibiotics; in recent years, it has been observed that gram-negative bacteria are prevalent in infections owing to a failure to treat the infection and antibiotic resistance. This has led to the phrase “the end of the antibiotic era,” which was revealed in late 2017. This topic has gained momentum among the journalists, specialists, and broadcasters, who have developed immense interest in exploring new approaches and substitutes for antibiotics to treat infections. Several factors contribute to the increasing antibiotic resistance; these can be divided into two main categories, that is, those caused by human behaviors with respect to antibiotic use and those enacted by pathogens as they attempt to protect themselves against antibiotics. Therefore, the main purpose of this review is to discuss and summarize the most important factors and emphasize the measures to tackle drug resistance worldwide. A comprehensive studies were conducted  to evaluate the reasons of antimicrobial resistance, studying different factors including  bacterial strains (either positive or negative) gram bacteria, antimicrobial agent, in case of  negative  gram bacteria that’s  mean the isolates are not inhibited by the selected antimicrobial agent or by achievable concentrations,  the normal dose schedules and / or the diameters of the area in the range, that’s lead to a specific mechanisms of microbial resistance (e.g., beta-lactamase).


Drug Resistance, bacterial infections, beta-lactamase, antibiotics.

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© The Author(s) 2020. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.