Akbar Ali

Faculty of Pharmacy, Northern Border University, Rafha, Saudi Arabia.


Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is the capability of a microorganism to neutralize the harmful effects of a drug. AMR is an increasing health problem worldwide. UTIs are among the most common infection in human accounting for 150 million cases globally. The most common pathogen responsible for the UTI infections is E. coli. The uropathogens are getting resistant to commonly used antibiotics. The current research was designed to evaluate the pattern of antimicrobial resistance among the uropathogens against commonly administered antibiotics in patients visiting Rafha central Hospital, Rafha city, Saudi Arabia. The study was done retrospectively and the antimicrobial resistance data was taken from the microbiology lab of the hospital from January 2016 to December 2017. During that period, 623 positive cases were observed. E. coli was the most prevalent UTI pathogen. Resistance against 27 commonly used antibiotics was studied. Among β-Lactam antibiotics, increasing resistance was observed except for Augmentin.  The imipenem was relatively more effective. Among non-β Lactam group, least resistance was seen against Vancomycin and Amikacin. Overall increase in antibiotic resistance was observed in the current study with some exceptions. It is therefore recommended that the routine urine cultures must be done and the resistance pattern in the region must regularly be monitored.

Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), uropathogens, pattern, urinary tract infection (UTI), Escherichia coli, prevalence, susceptible.