ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Basheer Abu-Farich1, Hadeel Hamarshi2, Mahmud Masalha2, Abderrazak Aboulghazi1, Abdalsalam Kmail3, Mohammed El Ouassete4, Hamada Imtara2, Badiaa Lyoussi1 and Bashar Saad2
1Laboratory of Natural Substances, Pharmacology, Environment, Modeling, Health, and Life Quality, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mehraz, University Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Fez, Morocco.
2Qasemi Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Arab American University, P.O. Box 240, Jenin, Palestine.
3Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Arab American University, P.O. Box 240, Jenin, Palestine.
4Laboratory of Microbial Biotechnology and Bioactive Molecules, Sciences and Technologies Faculty, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, P.O. Box 2202, Fez, Morocco.
Article Number: 9188 | © The Author(s). 2024
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2024;18(2):1372-1385.
Received: 19 December 2023 | Accepted: 13 May 2024 | Published online: 02 June 2024
Issue online: June 2024

The phenolic compounds of four Palestinian honey samples (PH1-PH4) and their antibacterial effects as well as their cytotoxic, cytostatic, and antimigration effects in human breast cancer cell line (MDA) were evaluated here. HPLC analysis of PH2 (Cornflower), PH3 (Milk thistle), and PH4 (Ziziphus) revealed 15 phenolic compounds, namely, caffeic acid, carvacrol, chrysin, ellagic acid, galangin, gallic acid, kaempferol, p-coumaric acid, pinobanksin, pinocembrin, protocatechuic acid, quercetin, rutin, salicylic acid, and silydamin. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Escherichia coli (E. coli). A strong positive correlation was detected between antimicrobial activity (E. coli) and p-coumaric acid, quercetin, and silydamin. IC50 values for DPPH neutralization varied from 0.19 w/w% to 10 w/w%. The potential anticancer properties of the honey samples were evaluated on MDA cells. Samples PH2 and PH3 demonstrated cytostatic activity, reducing cell viability by about 43% at non-toxic concentration of 4 mg/mL. The cytostatic effects were strongly correlated with the presence of caffeic acid, chrysin, protocatechuic acid, rutin, and salicylic acid (p < 0.01). Moreover, the cell migration rate was significantly reduced (by up to 85%) with PH2 and PH3 compared to untreated cells (p < 0.05). A strong positive correlation was observed between the cytostatic effects of the concentration of carvacrol and Pinocembrin (p < 0.01). Our findings validate honey’s antibacterial properties and suggest its anticancer benefits may stem from cytostatic and antimigration effects.


Antibacterial, Antioxidant, Anticancer, Cytostatic, Cytotoxic, Antimigration

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© The Author(s) 2024. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.