ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Nilesh Yadav, Vanshika Dabas and Jai Gopal Sharma
Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India.
Article Number: 9365 | © The Author(s). 2024
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2024;18(2):823-836. https://doi.org/10.22207/JPAM.18.2.44
Received: 11 March 2024 | Accepted: 13 May 2024 | Published online: 31 May 2024
Issue online: June 2024
Abstract

The amount of anthropogenic activity in the environment has significantly increased due to urbanization and industrialization. Toxic metals and other contaminants have become more concentrated as a result, appearing in wastewater released by many sectors. Aquatic animals suffer as a result of tainted wastewater entering water bodies. As a result, damage also occurs in the crops contaminating the agricultural ecology. Although several techniques have been used to detoxify contaminants in wastewater, the current situation necessitates environmentally acceptable and economically viable techniques for wastewater treatment. To fulfill this objective, this review is aimed at exploring the major sources of metals in wastewater. The traditional techniques for treating wastewater take a lot of time and are not environmentally or financially sustainable. Utilizing microorganisms, plants, and biomass leftovers to break down metal poisons is a proven biotechnology strategy that is environmentally friendly. Hence, the review highlights the drawbacks of conventional techniques with importance of bioremediation for sustainable ecosystem. Also, phytoremediation—the process of removing metals from the environment using plants is discussed as a successful strategy. Plants are thought to be the most effective option for wastewater remediation because they contain a variety of microorganisms and enzymes that aid in the detoxification of metals from wastewater. Overall, to gain a better understanding of environmentally friendly and sustainable ways, the buildup and detoxification of metals through the use of plants, microorganisms, and biomass residues in environmental remediation is highlighted.

Keywords

Bioremediation, Metal Pollution, Microbes, Phytoremediation, Plants

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© The Author(s) 2024. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.