ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Chika Bright Ikele1, Onyeka Michael Ikele2 , Nkiruka Francisca Oparaku1, Rose Nduka Obiezue1, Ikem Chris Okoye1, George Promise1, Nnadi Uche1 and Adaeze Arinze1
1Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria.
2Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
Article Number: 9089 | © The Author(s). 2024
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2024;18(2):1221-1234.
Received: 29 October 2023 | Accepted: 08 January 2024 | Published online: 31 May 2024
Issue online: June 2024

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium which can cause opportunistic infections in fishes. Ethanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera was used in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected Clarias gariepinus for a period of 10 days. Pathogen-free Clarias gariepinus fingerlings (n=120) were randomly distributed into four different groups (A-D). Group A, Infected Clarias gariepinus without treatment; group B, Infected Clarias gariepinus treated with ciprofloxacin 250 mg/mL); group C, Infected Clarias gariepinus treated with 500 mg/L Moringa oleifera extract; and group D, Infected Clarias gariepinus treated with 1500 mg/L Moringa oleifera extract. A 0.1 mL aliquot of 7.2×105 CFU/mL of Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture was intra-peritoneally injected into the body of the fingerlings to induce infection. The gill of fish was excised, homogenized and centrifuged to ascertain oxidative stress, while histological examination followed thereafter. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the ethanol extract was 125 mg/mL while the minimum bactericidal concentration was at 500 mg/mL. Gross morphology examination showed hemorrhage in the gill and mouth, and swollen abdomen, after 72 h of infection. The weight of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected Clarias gariepinus before and after treatment showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) among the groups. There was significant (p<0.05) reduction in oxidative stress parameters examined. Histopathological changes noticed were minor hemorrhage epitheliocystis and damaged gill lamella. Total bacterial count showed a reduction in the Pseudomonas load in groups C and D over the period of study thus, indicating strong potentials of Moringa oleifera in the control of fish Pseudomonas infection.


Moringa oleifera, Antibiotic Resistance, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clariasgariepinus, Histopathology

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© The Author(s) 2024. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.