ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Yuniar Mulyani1 , Yeni Mulyani2, Mochamad Untung K. Agung2 and Dian Yuni Pratiwi1
1Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Sumedang Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia.
2Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Sumedang Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia.
Article Number: 9040 | © The Author(s). 2024
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2024;18(2):762-771. https://doi.org/10.22207/JPAM.18.2.40
Received: 05 October 2023 | Accepted: 24 February 2024 | Published online: 27 May 2024
Issue online: June 2024
Abstract

Virus has the ability to cause health problems and even death in humans. Therefore, this review aims to assess the potential of metabolites derived from Bacillus species as viral protease inhibitors, specifically targeting Mpro/3CLpro and PLpro, in SARS-CoV-2 infection. During infection, SARS-CoV-2 enters host cells and initiates replication by translating viral proteases. The major protease (Mpro), also known as 3CLpro, and the papain-like protease (PLpro) are both encoded by SARS-CoV-2. Protease inhibitors (PIs) disrupt the formation of new viral particles by suppressing protease activity. Metabolites capable of acting as protease inhibitors found in Bacillus spp. include chondrillasterol, cholestane, trifluoroacetic acid, octadecenoic acid, stigmasterol, 9-octadecenoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, Macrolactin A, Subtilosin A, Leodoglucomide, Gramicidin S, and Tyrocidine A. Molecular docking analysis presented effective binding of these compounds to the active sites of Mpro or PLpro. The results showed that various compounds identified in Bacillus spp. had the potential to be developed as alternative drugs for combating SARS-CoV-2.

Keywords

Virus, SARS-CoV-2, Bacillus, Proteases, Protease inhibitors

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© The Author(s) 2024. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.