ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Harendra Kumar Thakur1,2, Bansidhar Tarai2 , Aradhana Bhargava3, Pankaj Soni4, Prasana Kumar Rath5, Bidyut Prava Mishra5 and Manoj Kumar Jena1
1Department of Biotechnology, School of Bioengineering and Biosciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India.
2Department of Molecular Biology, Max Super Speciality Hospital, Saket, New Delhi, India.
3National Centre for Disease Control, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India, New Delhi, India.
4Department of Internal Medicine, Max Super Speciality Hospital, Saket, New Delhi, India.
5College of Veterinary Science and AH, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
Article Number: 8845 | © The Author(s). 2024
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2024;18(2):772-796.
Received: 12 July 2023 | Accepted: 22 March 2024 | Published online: 27 April 2024
Issue online: June 2024

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a major health care associated infection which usually emanates from aspiration, immigration of pathogens from aerodigestive tract, adulterated appliance uses or medications. The mortality rate due to VAP is approximately 13% and the causative organisms are bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Many studies have investigated the causative organisms as Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus with varying prevalence. Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admitted patients who are ventilated, are more prone to the infections where the pathogens adhere to the mucosa of lower respiratory tract of mechanically ventilated patients and start infections. Clinical diagnosis based on Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS) has poor specificity and microbiological findings takes 48-72 hrs, that can delay the treatment of patients. Lymphopenia on complete blood count is a predictor of mortality in VAP patients, but decreased lymphocyte count occurs in various other infections too. Multiplex PCR is a better diagnostic technique for VAP which can even diagnose atypical bacteria along with other etiological agents. Effectively employing sampling techniques is a vital step in the diagnosis of VAP, enabling the identification of pathogens responsible for lung infections. Furthermore, the emergence of novel therapeutic options approved by regulatory bodies, adds significant advancements in VAP treatment. In this review article, we have performed an in-depth study on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapeutic strategies involved in VAP. This study will help the researchers working in this area to design their work appropriately with the updated knowledge on VAP.


Ventilator Associated Pneumonia, Bacteria, Multiplex PCR, Pathogenesis, Therapy

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© The Author(s) 2024. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.