ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Hanan S. Al-Ghamdi1,2, Hesham A. Malak1,2, Leena A. Neyaz1,2,
Najla A. Obaid3, Shmoukh Alghuraibi4, Mawadah M.S. AlKashkary5,
Khaled Elbanna1,2,6, Iqbal Ahmad7 and Hussein H. Abulreesh1,2
1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
2Research Laboratories Unit, Faculty of Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
3Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, College of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
4Al Borg Diagnostics, Research and Development Unit, Al Borg Medical Laboratories, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
5Al Noor Specialist Hospital, Ministry of Health, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
6Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt.
7Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.
Article Number: 9246 | © The Author(s). 2024
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2024;18(2):886-899.
Received: 14 January 2024 | Accepted: 04 March 2024 | Published online: 28 March 2024
Issue online: June 2024

Multidrug resistance patterns of Acinetobacter spp. have led to their emergence as an important source of nosocomial infections. This study investigated the prevalence and clinical characteristics of Acinetobacter spp. in hospital-acquired wound and urinary tract infections. A total of 432 samples [wound swabs (210) and urine samples (222)] were analyzed for the presence of Acinetobacter spp. through selective culturing on MacConkey and Leeds Acinetobacter medium followed by identification with API 20E strips and Vitek 2 compact system. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by adopting the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar, whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration procedure was carried out by using a ComASP™ Colistin test kit. Biofilm formation was examined using microtiter plates and following the crystal violet staining method. PCR was performed to amplify virulence (lasB, bap, and plcN) and antimicrobial resistance (blaOXA-51like) genes. The results revealed a low prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. (1.85 %) where Acinetobacter baumannii was the predominant species. Acinetobacter baumannii isolates harbored blaOXA-51-like gene to exert extensive or pan-drug resistance. Most Acinetobacter baumannii isolates demonstrated weaker to moderate biofilm-forming capabilities and carried the bap gene. Acinetobacter baumannii isolates lacked the combination of virulence factors encoding lasB and plcN genes. Acinetobacter baumannii infections are rising in Saudi Arabia. The results of this study highlight the epidemiology of virulent and antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter spp., particularly A. baumannii, in Saudi Arabia. The detailed elaboration on the diversity, virulence, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Acinetobacter spp. in Saudi Arabia requires further in-depth molecular investigations.


Acinetobacter baumannii, Wound Infections, Antimicrobial Resistance, Virulence Factors, Biofilm

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© The Author(s) 2024. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.