ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Ernessto Mahizhchi, Diveyaa Sivakumar and Megala Jayaraman
Department of Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur, Chennai – 603203, Tamil Nadu, India.
Article Number: 7848 | © The Author(s). 2024
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2024;18(1):16-28.
Received: 21 May 2022 | Accepted: 07 February 2024 | Published online: 03 March 2024
Issue online: March 2024

Antimicrobials or antibiotics were the important revelations of the last century, however, it came along with a silent curse that people care less to talk about. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) which emerged alongside antibiotics in the last century has been a significant concern for scientists and policymakers. Since their discovery, it has been noted that the widespread use of antibiotics is the primary cause of bacteria developing antimicrobial drug resistance.  Despite the recognition of this issue, it is challenging to curtail the widespread use of antibiotics because they are essential for treating various infections. Paradoxically, the necessity of using these drugs becomes an inadvertent advantage for bacteria to evolve resistance mechanisms. This dilemma creates a seeming stalemate in our battle against these tiny microorganisms.  Delaying action could have dire consequences, potentially leading to the emergence of stronger superbugs that pose a serious threat to the entire human population. The recent COVID-19 pandemic serves as a stark reminder of the devastating impact a small microbe can have on global health. This paper delves into the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria, the evolution of superbugs and the innovative techniques employed by scientists to combat these challenges. Taking proactive steps is crucial to avoid a future where we are at the mercy of increasingly resilient microbes.


Antimicrobial Resistance, Superbugs, Efflux pumps, β-Lactamases, Nanoparticles, CRISPR/Cas9

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© The Author(s) 2024. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.