ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Ivo Sirakov1 , Petya Stankova1, Dimitar Bakalov2, Yeshaa Mirani3, Lyudmila Bardarska4, Gergana Paraskova4, Ivan Popov5, Alexandra Alexandrova1, Georgi Dimitrov1, Gergana Mizgova6, Nikolay Kalvatchev1 and Raina Gergova1
1Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Sofia, 2 “Zdrave” str., 1431 Sofia, Bulgaria.
2Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Sofia, 2 “Zdrave” str., 1431 Sofia, Bulgaria.
3Faculty of Medicine, Student, Medical University of Sofia, 1431 Sofia, Bulgaria.
4Multi-profile Hospital for Active Treatment “Southwestern Hospital”, Park area, 2800 Sandanski, Bulgaria.
5SIMDL “St.Ivan Rilski” LTD, 1 “Svoboda” blvd., 2800 Sandanski, Bulgaria.
6Multi-profile Hospital for Acute Care “Uni Hospital” Ltd., 100 “Georgi Benkovski” str., 4500 Panagyurishte, Bulgaria.
Article Number: 9058 | © The Author(s). 2024
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2024;18(1):438-450.
Received: 15 October 2023 | Accepted: 08 January 2024 | Published online: 28 February 2024
Issue online: March 2024

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic demonstrated the importance of proper understanding of the epidemiology of viral infections in the modern cosmopolitan world. In this retrospective study, we analyzed different factors associated with the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the Sandanski municipality, a small and isolated region of Bulgaria, with a classical continental Mediterranean climate. We collected 418 serum samples from people without symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection or other respiratory diseases. The samples were tested for COVID-19 markers with qualitative and quantitative ELISA for anti-N and anti-S antibodies, and a rapid test for (IgM/G) antibodies. The methods were applied to complement each other with the different characteristics each of them has, thus allowing us to perform more accurate and more comprehensive detection of serum antibodies and to analyze the virus spread. We compared the results with the official government data for the SARS-CoV-2 distribution in Bulgaria. Based on the obtained results and available literature data, we discuss the importance of popular diagnostic methods, the role of the climate, the travel of people and pets, psychological stress and the individual reaction of subjects related to the spread of the virus.


COVID-19, Asymptomatic Cases, First Wave, Climate, Serological Tests, WHO, Mass Media

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© The Author(s) 2024. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.