ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Mahmoud M. Tawfick1,2 , Mona Shaban E. M. Badawy3, Mohammed H. Taleb4 and Nagwan G. El Menofy3
1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy (For Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751, Egypt.
2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Heliopolis University, Cairo 11785, Egypt.
3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy (For Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751, Egypt.
4Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University–Gaza, Gaza 79702, Palestine.
Article Number: 8802 | © The Author(s). 2023
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2023;17(4):1978-2009.
Received: 22 June 2023 | Accepted: 05 October 2023 | Published online: 02 December 2023
Issue online: December 2023

Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant public health challenge, especially in developing nations. Developing a TB eradication strategy is hampered by the global health concern of drug-resistant (DR) TB. Effective patient treatment, preventing TB transfer and avoiding the upsurge of DR strains depend primarily on the timely and accurate identification of DR TB. Due to inadequate sensitivity, the necessity of trained laboratory personnel, the sluggish growth pattern of Mycobacterium bacilli in culture, and the small number of bacilli that are usually found in extrapulmonary TB samples, TB diagnosis is still tricky in clinical practice. Although mycobacterial culture is the gold standard to identify TB and determine drug resistance, it takes 2 to 8 weeks to develop. Despite their high cost, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) are the commonly employed molecular-based methods for diagnosing and identifying TB. The WHO suggested the GeneXpert MTB/RIF to identify TB and detect resistance to rifampicin. In comparison, numerous molecular techniques were developed, including allele-specific PCR (MAS-PCR), solid-phase hybridization, real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and droplet digital PCR-based technique (DDPCR). This manuscript is intended to overview the current approaches for the phenotypic and genotypic diagnosis of TB disease and identifying resistance to antitubercular drugs depending on recently published articles, WHO and CDC reports, and commercially available diagnostic tools.


Mycobacterium tuberculosis, TB, Drug Resistance, Molecular Techniques, MDR-TB

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© The Author(s) 2023. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.