ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Nurul Azmiera1, Hassanain Al-Talib1, Noraziah Sahlan1, Anna Krasilnikova2,3, Shariza Sahudin4,5 and Chong Chin Heo1,6
1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh Campus, Jalan Hospital, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia.
2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Medicine, International Medical University, 126, Jalan Jalil Perkasa 19, Bukit Jalil, 57000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
3Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Intensive Care, Volgograd State Medical University, 1, Pl. Pavshikh Bortsov Square, Volgograd, 400131, Russia.
4Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Selangor, Malaysia.
5Atta Ur Rahman Institute for Natural Product Discovery, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Selangor, Malaysia.
6Institute for Pathology, Laboratory and Forensic Medicine (I-PPerForM), Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh Campus, Jalan Hospital, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia.
Article Number: 8887 | © The Author(s). 2023
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2023;17(4):2493-2501. https://doi.org/10.22207/JPAM.17.4.47
Received: 02 August 2023 | Accepted: 03 October 2023 | Published online: 30 November 2023
Issue online: December 2023
Abstract

The larvae of the black soldier fly (BSFL), Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can survive in environments contaminated with various bacteria by producing antimicrobial compounds. This study, for the very first time, investigated the potential antibacterial activity of hemolymph extracted from BSFL in Malaysia using diffusion and dilution methods. Prior to extraction, the larvae were infected with either Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Escherichia coli. Then, the hemolymph was collected. Serial dilutions from 200 to 12.5 mg/ml of the hemolymph extracts were screened against ten different bacteria. The results showed inhibition of eight out of ten tested bacteria (i.e., MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter sp.). We found that immunological-challenge larvae have stronger antimicrobial activity than the control groups. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) for bacteria against for infected larvae were 12.5 mg/ml for MRSA, S. pyogenes, B. subtilis, M. luteus, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae. As for bactericidal activity, the MBC of E. coli infected larvae was 25mg/ml against S. pyogenes and B. subtilis. In conclusion, BSFL hemolymph has antibacterial activity against a range of bacteria and could be a candidate for novel antimicrobial development.

Keywords

Antibacterial Agents, BSFL, E. coli, Hemolymph Extract, Hermetia illucens, MRSA

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© The Author(s) 2023. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.