ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Shanti Choudhary1, Ratan Kumar Choudhary1, Manish Kumar2, Satparkash Singh1 and Yashpal Singh Malik1
1College of Animal Biotechnology, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.
2Department of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, Assam, India.
Article Number: 8984 | © The Author(s). 2023
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2023;17(4):1968-1977.
Received: 09 September 2023 | Accepted: 14 October 2023 | Published online: 30 November 2023
Issue online: December 2023

A corkscrew-shaped spirochaete named Leptospira interrogans causes the infectious disease called leptospirosis. Leptospirosis, a growing public health concern worldwide, from subclinical infections to potentially lethal pulmonary hemorrhage. The disease caused by the pathogenic Leptospira, poses a threat to both humans and animals, and its transmission occurs through contact with infected animals, contaminated water, and soil. The prevalence of leptospirosis is influenced by various factors, including climate, urban development, and animal-rearing practices. It can manifest with severe symptoms in humans, making early diagnosis crucial. Diagnostic methods like microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) are widely used for the screening of leptospira infection. Molecular technique like PCR and qPCR offering higher sensitivity and rapidity. This paper meta-analyses the incidence of leptospirosis in various animals based on the literature published from 2005 to 2023 and provides prevalence of the disease in various animal including humans. Results suggest the significance prevalence of the disease in humans and various animal species, namely buffalo, rodents, and dogs. Coastal regions in India were particularly vulnerable to the disease. Efforts to control leptospirosis include surveillance programs and public health initiatives. Understanding the epidemiology and prevalence of leptospirosis, as highlighted in this paper, is essential for implementing effective preventive measures. Finally, a continued research, diagnostic advancements, public awareness campaigns and addressing research gaps in epidemiology of the disease are critical in mitigating the impact on human and animal health. This review provides important data for public health authorities, veterinarians, scientists and for the public, in general.


Leptospirosis, Risk Factor, Prevalence, Diagnosis, Zoonotic Disease

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© The Author(s) 2023. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.