ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Diptimayee Rout1, Ira Praharaj2, Siba Prasad Dalai3, Swati Mishra1 and Sarita Otta1
1Department of Microbiology, IMS and SUM Hospital, Kalinga Nagar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
2Regional Medical Research Centre (ICMR), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
3Department of Medicine, IMS and SUM Hospital, Kalinga Nagar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
Article Number: 8638 | © The Author(s). 2023
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2023;17(4):2060-2073. https://doi.org/10.22207/JPAM.17.4.39
Received: 20 April 2023 | Accepted: 21 October 2023 | Published online: 29 November 2023
Issue online: December 2023
Abstract

Scrub typhus, an age old disease, is caused by the intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. It has reemerged in recent years due to factors like climatic changes and human encroachment because of rampant urbanization. The disease is endemic in the area known as the ‘tsutsugamushi triangle’ and has recently spread its fangs into various other continents like South America and Africa. Although the disease is endemic in India, there is a lack of appropriate sero-epidemiology in community settings. It is one of the essential causes of acute undifferentiated fever in tropical locations and, if untreated, can cause mortality ranging from 2-30% of cases. Early diagnosis is an important parameter in administering the non beta-lactam regimen to prevent complications and mortality. Yet, there is a lack of accurate and rapid methods for diagnosis in the early stage of the disease, more so in rural areas where the disease is supposed to be predominant. The gold standard diagnostic test has its problems. Recently, there have been reports of drug resistance to the standard scrub typhus regimen. There is a gap of a decade in the research into this entity. Thus, a new look into the disease, its epidemiology and the challenges in its diagnostic scenario is an apt topic for discussion.

Keywords

Scrub Typhus, Orientia tsutsugamushi, IgM Capture ELISA, Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay

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© The Author(s) 2023. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.