Scrub typhus, an age old disease, is caused by the intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. It has reemerged in recent years due to factors like climatic changes and human encroachment because of rampant urbanization. The disease is endemic in the area known as the ‘tsutsugamushi triangle’ and has recently spread its fangs into various other continents like South America and Africa. Although the disease is endemic in India, there is a lack of appropriate sero-epidemiology in community settings. It is one of the essential causes of acute undifferentiated fever in tropical locations and, if untreated, can cause mortality ranging from 2-30% of cases. Early diagnosis is an important parameter in administering the non beta-lactam regimen to prevent complications and mortality. Yet, there is a lack of accurate and rapid methods for diagnosis in the early stage of the disease, more so in rural areas where the disease is supposed to be predominant. The gold standard diagnostic test has its problems. Recently, there have been reports of drug resistance to the standard scrub typhus regimen. There is a gap of a decade in the research into this entity. Thus, a new look into the disease, its epidemiology and the challenges in its diagnostic scenario is an apt topic for discussion.
Scrub Typhus, Orientia tsutsugamushi, IgM Capture ELISA, Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay
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