ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Ashfaq Ahmad Shah, Shivangi Singh, Shubhika Saini, Aarushi Pundir, Kushal Saxena and Amit Gupta
Department of Microbiology, Graphic Era (Deemed to be) University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.
Article Number: 8594 | © The Author(s). 2023
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2023;17(4):2215-2231. https://doi.org/10.22207/JPAM.17.4.19
Received: 31 March 2023 | Accepted: 06 October 2023 | Published online: 10 November 2023
Abstract

This study aims to scrutinize the phenolic secondary metabolites in the polar peel decocture of Malus domestica var Maharaji via hyphenated techniques along with the study of the antibacterial, anti-candida, and tyrosinase inhibitory potential of bioactive compound-rich fractions. Preliminary phenolics go over was performed together with thin layer chromatography before the polar decocture was subjected to hyphenated techniques. FTIR investigation revealed the C-O bonds as in phenols, O-H bond stretch, and vibrations of alcohols and carboxylic acids as well as portrayed the C-H and >C=O stretches among other functional groups all of which are representative of phenolic and polyphenolic compounds. GC-MS perusal demonstrated the presence of bioactive compounds like Quercetin (13.04%), Ascorbic acid (6.48%), p-Coumaric acid (6.17%), Caffeic acid (5.69 %), Mallic acid (5.44%), Apigenin (5.28%), Citric acid (5.15%), Gallic acid (4.38%), Cyanidin (3.52%), and Ferulic acid (3.51%). Kirby-Bauer method followed by the resazurin microtiter assay technique (REMA) for MIC/MBC against six MTCC bacterial strains and one yeast, all producing stubborn opportunistic infection in humans, was used to assess the antibacterial property of all the bioactive rich fractions. Some fractions comparatively revealed a good activity index (AI) against tested microbes. MIC concentrations for bacteria ranged from 15-24 mg/ml while a lower MBC value recorded was 18 mg/ml. Methanol fraction revealed significant tyrosinase inhibitory activity by revealing IC50 of 980.98 µg/ml when L-Tyrosine was substrate and IC50 of 830.68 µg/ml when L-DOPA was substrate when juxtaposed to standard kojic acid that revealed IC50 of 128.822 µg/ml when L-Tyrosine was substrate and IC50 of 149.43 µg/ml when L-DOPA was substrate. The bioactive compounds possessed by the fractions, may be synergistically, turned out to be more effective in the diphenolase reaction and kojic acid acts more effectively in the monophenolase one. It was inferred that peel phenolics of this malus variety have a lot of therapeutic potential in the context of bacterial infections and pigmentation disorders.

Keywords

Malus domestica var Maharaji, TLC, Phenolics, GC-MS/FTIR, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, REMA, Tyrosinase Inhibition

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© The Author(s) 2023. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.