Recent emergence of carbapenem resistant non-fermenting Gram negative bacteria (CRNFGNB) predominantly Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter species are responsible for significant proportion of nosocomial infections with increased mortality. Of the various mechanisms known, carbapenemases especially metallo beta lactamase (MBL) mediated resistance is the most concerning because of its easy transmissibility via mobile genetic elements and lack of MBL inhibitors for clinical use. In the present study we determined to estimate the prevalence of carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter species, their resistance mechanisms by phenotypic tests and synergistic studies with Colistin and carbapenems combination by checkerboard assay. Carbapenem resistance among these two bacteria is 53.2% being isolated predominantly from pus and endotracheal secretions and from patients within the age group of less than 9 years (44%) and more than 60 years (23%). The incidence of carbapenemase and MBL production in NFGNB is 89.8% and 87.9%, respectively. Only Colistin and Tigecycline show significant antibacterial activity while most of the tested antibiotics were found to be least effective against carbapenem resistant NFGNB. Colistin and Imipenem combination demonstrated synergistic activity in majority of the NFGNB species; however, translation of such in vitro efficacy models into highly variable in vivo conditions could be possible only with strong clinical support.
Non-fermenting GNB, Carbapenemase, Metallo Beta Lactamases, Checker Board Assay
Share This Article
© The Author(s) 2023. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.