Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) is a neuro-invasive virus causing lifelong latent infection in humans. It increases the risk of dementia by entering inside the brain. Herpesviruses have been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) development. More than 50 million people worldwide are affected by Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease is becoming more prevalent with the increase age-related neurodegenerative diseases, dementia, etc. Therefore, there is an urgent need for better understanding of the pathogenesis of AD as well as its early detection. HSV-1 is a risk factor of for the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases, sporadic Alzheimer’s disease, prior diagnosis of disease cycle of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in brain tissue will help us to prevent AD in elderly patients. Serological assays were the first choice of detection including whole-antigen-based (non-gG-specific) methods and western blotting (WB) assays, but quantitative PCR (qPCR) & genomic sequencing has shown better efficiency. Recently RNAscope, a novel in situ RNA hybridization assay is developed to visualize and detect the multiple phases of HSV-1. In this review, we discussed about early detection of tau and β-amyloid protein which are biomarkers of AD and track the deposition of amyloid plaques reminiscent in brain. We also discussed the current work on HSV detection through RNAscope hybridization technique & summarized the role of dietary habits as a precautionary measure of the infection as well as anthropological diversification of dementia in India and factors influencing it. We also pointed out some knowledge gaps that are further required to be taken after detection of the infection.
Herpes Simplex Virus, Alzheimer’s Disease, RNAscope Hybridization, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Plant-Derived Antiviral Peptides
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