ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Dhritiman Chanda1 , G.D. Sharma1, Nikkan Chakraborty2 and Raja Kumar2
1Department of Botany, University of Science & Technology Meghalaya, India.
2Unipath Speciality Laboratory, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
Article Number: 8049 | © The Author(s). 2023
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2023;17(4):1948-1955.
Received: 23 August 2022 | Accepted: 13 February 2023| Published online: 13 October 2023
Issue online: December 2023

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) is a neuro-invasive virus causing lifelong latent infection in humans. It increases the risk of dementia by entering inside the brain. Herpesviruses have been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) development. More than 50 million people worldwide are affected by Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease is becoming more prevalent with the increase age-related neurodegenerative diseases, dementia, etc. Therefore, there is an urgent need for better understanding of the pathogenesis of AD as well as its early detection. HSV-1 is a risk factor of for the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases, sporadic Alzheimer’s disease, prior diagnosis of disease cycle of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in brain tissue will help us to prevent AD in elderly patients. Serological assays were the first choice of detection including whole-antigen-based (non-gG-specific) methods and western blotting (WB) assays, but quantitative PCR (qPCR) & genomic sequencing has shown better efficiency. Recently RNAscope, a novel in situ RNA hybridization assay is developed to visualize and detect the multiple phases of HSV-1. In this review, we discussed about early detection of tau and β-amyloid protein which are biomarkers of AD and track the deposition of amyloid plaques reminiscent in brain. We also discussed the current work on HSV detection through RNAscope hybridization technique & summarized the role of dietary habits as a precautionary measure of the infection as well as anthropological diversification of dementia in India and factors influencing it. We also pointed out some knowledge gaps that are further required to be taken after detection of the infection.


Herpes Simplex Virus, Alzheimer’s Disease, RNAscope Hybridization, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Plant-Derived Antiviral Peptides

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© The Author(s) 2023. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.