ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Yathrib Al-Ubaidy and Amjed Alsultan
Department of Internal and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Al-Dewaniyah, 58001, Iraq.
Article Number: 8557 | © The Author(s). 2023
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2023;17(3):1708-1714.
Received: 07 March 2023 | Accepted: 08 August 2023 | Published online: 02 September 2023
Issue online: September 2023

Antimicrobial agents are widely used for treatment of animal and human diseases. Heavy use of antimicrobial agents permits bacteria to develop resistance to these agents specifically when a dose of antibiotic is insufficient or course of treatment is incomplete. Antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) are usually associated with mobile genetic elements (MGEs) including Integron therefore; these genes can transmit among bacteria via horizontal transmission. The current study was conducted to assess the possible role of manure in dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. The presence, quantitate, and diversity of resistance genes associated with Integron class 1 have been assessed using conventional and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with sequencing of gene cassette within Integron and analysis of sequenced data by blast tool. Thirty-eight samples were found a positive for Integron and concentration of Integron in positive sample ranged from from 106-1010 copies/g of manure. High frequencies were detected to genes that encoded to sulphonamide and ammonium compound resistance. These genes were detected in 25% and 23% respectively of the total manure samples. In general, the detected genes in manure functionally belong to five protein families including Efflux pump, DNA repair, heavy metal resistance, membrane protein, and antibiotic resistance. Manure might act as a hotspot from which ARGs emerge and transfer to the environment and then to the animal and human environments.


Antibiotic Rgene, Integrons, Manure and Mobile Genetic Elements

Article Metrics

Article View: 282

Share This Article

© The Author(s) 2023. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.