ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Hamid Ahmad Shah1 , Arshi Syed2, Mohd Altaf Bhat3, Dalip K. Kakru1, Shaheen Farooq3, Sabia Qureshi4, Azhar Shafi2, Burhan Nabi5 and Anil Taku6
1Department of Microbiology, SMSR, Sharda University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.
2Department of Microbiology SKIMS Medical College, Bemina, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India.
3Department of Veterinary Microbiology & Immunology, F.V.Sc & A.H., SKUAST-K, Shuhama, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India.
4Department of Microbiology & Immunology, F.V.Sc & A.H., SKUAST-K, Shuhama, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India.
5Department of Veterinary Medicine, Khalsa College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Amritsar, Punjab, India.
6Department of Veterinary Microbiology, F.V.Sc & A.H., SKUAST-Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir, India.
Article Number: 8718 | © The Author(s). 2023
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2023;17(3):1679-1690.
Received: 22 May 2023 | Accepted: 19 July 2023 | Published online: 01 September 2023
Issue online: September 2023

The growing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a worldwide public health apprehension, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the most commonly implicated bacterial species. Among E. coli isolates, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains have been identified as a key contributor to antibiotic resistance. Penicillin’s, cephalosporins, and monobactams are only a few of the β-lactam antibiotics that can be rendered inactive by ESBLs. This investigation’s goals were to determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates found in clinical samples and to analyze the distribution of the blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes among them. Additionally, we aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of these isolates to other antibiotics. Clinical isolates from urine, ear swab, and wound/pus swabs were collected from patients with suspected E. coli bacterial infections from different regions of north India viz., SKIMS-JVC medical college and NABL accredited Dr. Qadri’s Lab both from Srinagar Kashmir valley region and SMSR, SU from Greater Noida UP. Standard laboratory techniques were used to identify E. coli isolates, and the combined disc method and other phenotypic confirmation techniques were used to confirm ESBL formation. PCR amplification and sequencing were used to find the blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes. The Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of various bacteria to different antibiotics. A total of 210 E. coli isolates were collected from different clinical samples and only 158 isolates showed positive results for ESBL by DDST and phenotypic confirmatory tests. Of these, 124 (78.48%) were ESBL-producing isolates. We found that blaTEM was the most prevalent gene (45.16%), followed by blaCTX-M (34.16%) and blaSHV (12.09%). Antimicrobial resistance profiles were assessed for each of the 120 isolates. Ampicillin and Cefepime were the most resistant drugs to ESBL-producing isolates, followed by Gentamicin, Ceftriaxone, and Cefixime.


ESBL, PCR, DDST, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Enterobacteriaceae

Article Metrics

Article View: 468

Share This Article

© The Author(s) 2023. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.