ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Shoaib Khan1, Peer Maroof1 and Umara Amin2
1Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College, Srinagar, J&K, India.
2Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College, Baramulla, J&K, India.
Article Number: 8500 | © The Author(s). 2023
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2023;17(3):1659-1668.
Received: 14 February 2023 | Accepted: 10 July 2023 | Published online: 01 September 2023
Issue online: September 2023

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections diagnosed in clinical practice. Treatment is often initiated before microbiological confirmation and anti-microbial susceptibility testing. With the rapidly rising antibiotic resistance treatment failures are not uncommon. Beta-lactamase production by gram-negative bacteria causing UTI is the commonest mode of drug resistance. The aim of current study was to detect and determine the hospital based prevalence of UTI, causative uropathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. A total of 9,518 clean catch, mid stream urine samples were processed over 2 years. Semi-quantitative urine cultures and AST were performed. Diverse underlying resistance mechanisms were determined by detecting ESBLs, Carbapenemases, AmpC β-Lactamases, and Metallo-β-Lactamases through various standardized phenotypic methods. Out of the 9,518 samples tested 1171 (12.3%) were culture positive. Majority (66.7%) were from female patients. Highest prevalence (60%) was seen in patients > 40 years of age. E. coli (48%) was the predominant causative organism, followed by Enterococcus spp. (23%). Among GNB high resistance rates were observed against Beta-lactams, Beta-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, and fluoroquinolones. 34.5% of GNB were confirmed as ESBL, 40% as carbapenemase, 36.5% as AmpC β-Lactamase, and 41.5% as MBL producers. We found very high levels of resistance against a broad range of antibiotics including the most widely used β-lactam group. With the resistance slopes getting steeper and steeper empirical treatment of UTIs might be fraught with the danger of many failures. Culturing and performing AST for all patients with UTI might be a prudent step for their rationale treatment and a step forward in halting the emergence of further resistance.


UTI, Anti-microbial Resistance, ESBLs, Carbapenemases

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© The Author(s) 2023. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.