ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Mary Lalramchuani1,2, Lalramliana1 , Hrang Chal Lalramnghaki1,3,Vanramliana1 and Esther Lalhmingliani2
1Department of Zoology, Pachhunga University College, Mizoram University, Aizawl, Mizoram, India.
2Systematics and Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Mizoram University, Aizawl, Mizoram, India.
3Developmental Biology and Herpetology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Mizoram University, Aizawl, Mizoram, India.
Article Number: 8619 | © The Author(s). 2023
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2023;17(3):1560-1577.
Received: 13 April 2023 | Accepted: 10 July 2023 | Published online: 11 August 2023
Issue online: September 2023

Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus are the bacterial symbionts of insect pathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively. This study aims to characterize the bacterial symbionts from Mizoram, North-east India and to evaluate their antibacterial potential. The bacterial isolates were characterized using recA and gyrB gene regions. The ethyl acetate extract of bacterial isolates was tested against pathogenic bacterial strains, viz. Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 10031), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145), and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 11774) using disk diffusion method. Analysis of recA and gyrB genes revealed that the Photorhabdus isolates were P. hindustanensis, and P. namnaonensis. This study constitutes the first documentation of P. namnaonensis from India. The two isolated Xenorhabdus belong to X. vietnamensis and X. stockiae. The ethyl acetate extracts of the studied bacteria suppressed the development of all the microorganisms tested. Based on MIC and MBC values, the highest activity was exhibited by TS (P. hindustanensis) and TD (P. namnaonensis) isolates against P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae respectively. The lowest inhibitory activity was observed on both Xenorhabdus isolates (RF and PTS) against B. subtilis. This study focuses on the existence and identification of symbiotic bacteria from Mizoram, an Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot region, and details their activity against different pathogenic bacteria. Since these metabolites could be potent antibiotics, further research is required to better understand the genetic information, chemical composition, and method of action against other microorganisms.


Antibiotic, Photorhabdus, Xenorhabdus, gyrB, recA

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© The Author(s) 2023. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.