ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Rubavathi Subbaiyan1, Ayyappadasan Ganesan1 and Venkatraman Varadharajan2
1Department of Biotechnology, K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India.
2Department of Biotechnology, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Article Number: 8516 | © The Author(s). 2023
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2023;17(3):1374-1390.
Received: 19 February 2023 | Accepted: 14 April 2023 | Published online: 14 June 2023
Issue online: September 2023

Biofouling is a significant problem in various industries, including marine, medical, and water treatment. It occurs when microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and algae, attach to surfaces and form biofilms, which can lead to material degradation, decreased performance, and increased maintenance costs. Traditional approaches to mitigate biofouling include the use of biocides, physical cleaning, and chemical treatments. However, these methods have limitations, such as environmental concerns, short-term effectiveness, and development of resistant organisms. One alternative approach is the use of lichen-associated symbionts, which have been found to produce compounds that inhibit biofilm formation and growth. These compounds could be used to develop eco-friendly and sustainable antifouling coatings. Another promising approach is the use of nanotechnology to develop novel coatings that prevent biofouling. Nanomaterials can be engineered to have hydrophobic structures, which deter microorganisms from attaching to surfaces. They can also be designed to contain nano biocides, which can kill organisms that come into contact with the surfaces. Overall, the use of lichen-associated symbionts and nanotechnology holds great potential for developing effective and sustainable solutions to mitigate biofouling. However, further research is needed to optimize these approaches and ensure their safety and efficacy in various applications. This review offers a brief overview on the mechanisms of biofouling and evaluate the potential of using lichen-associated symbionts and nanotechnology to prevent or reduce biofouling.


Biofouling, Marine Environment, Anti-microbials, Nanomaterials, Lichen

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© The Author(s) 2023. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.