ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Thejaswi Bhandary1, Christine Kurian1, Magesh Muthu2, Asha Anand3, Thirunavukarasou Anand4 and Kuppusamy Alagesan Paari1
1Department of Life Sciences, CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
2Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States of America.
3DST WOSA, Department of Plant Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.
4Aatral Biosciences Private Limited, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
Article Number: 8064 | © The Author(s). 2023
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2023;17(1):35-50.
Received: 29 August 2022 | Accepted: 01 February 2023 | Published online: 02 March 2023
Issue online: March 2023

Probiotic bacteria are producers of secretory products such as bacteriocins and polysaccharides. Both homopolymeric and heteropolymeric exopolysaccharides (EPS) present on the surface of microorganisms have shown beneficial properties. While the fact that they play a role in bacterial homeostasis is well established, studies exploring their health promoting effects have also gained traction. Some exopolysaccharides function by inducing immune tolerance, others act by evading immune responses such as those by B and T cells. The interaction between the EPS and the immune system helps protect the bacteria against an attack by the host immune system. Several exopolysaccharides also show tolerogenic properties by reducing the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing IL-10 production. They are also associated with anti-bacterial activity, anti-biofilm activity and anti-tumour properties. This review highlights the different types of exopolysaccharides and their health benefiting potentials. Better understanding of these mechanisms will pave the way for harnessing their potential to improve our health.


Probiotic, Exopolysaccharide, Immunomodulation, Anti-biofilm, Adhesion, Colonization, Antimicrobial, Anti-inflammatory, Cytokines

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© The Author(s) 2023. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.