ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Noor Zarina Abd Wahab1 , Syamila Izzati Mohd Saidi1, Nor Iza A.Rahman2 and Nazlina Ibrahim3
1School of Biomedicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Gong Badak Campus, 21300 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia.
2School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Medical Campus, 20400 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.
3Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia.
Article Number: 8241 | © The Author(s). 2023
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2023;17(1):204-210.
Received: 14 November 2022 | Accepted: 23 December 2022 | Published online: 24 January 2023
Issue online: March 2023

Kyllinga nemoralis also known as, whitehead spike sedge is a perennial herb which contains antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-bleeding properties. This study was designed to determine the biological activity of K. nemoralis methanolic roots extract on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication cycle. The effect on HSV-1 replication phases was observed by performing time-of-addition and time removal assays. Meanwhile, the level of HSV-1 selected genes expression was analysed by quantitative Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). In the time addition assay, K. nemoralis extract anti-HSV-1 activity was found to be most optimum when given at 2 hpi (>45% plaque reduction). The time removal assay showed that >80% plaque reduction was achieved when treatment of K. nemoralis extract was given until 24 hpi. K. nemoralis extract suppressed immediate early, early and late phases of HSV-1 replication cycle by altering the expression of UL54, UL27 and UL30 genes during the infection. This study showed that K. nemoralis methanolic roots extract has potential as anti HSV-1 by reducing the expression of HSV-1 genes at different phases of viral replication.


Kyllinga nemoralis, Antiviral, Herpes Simplex Virus, Plaque Reduction Assay, Replication Cycle

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© The Author(s) 2023. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.