Monkeypox virus is an orthopoxvirus sharing the common genus with variola and vaccinia virus. Most of the monkeypox (MPX) cases had been reported from the central and west African region (the main endemic areas) prior to 2022 but there was a sudden outbreak in May, 2022 disseminating the infections to thousands of people even in non-endemic countries, posing a global public health emergency. MPX was considered a rae and neglected disease, however the 2022 MPX outbreaks in multiple countries attracted attention of worldwide researchers to pace up for carrying out researches on various aspects of MPXV including attempts to design and develop diagnostics, vaccines, drugs and therapeutics counteract MPX. Apart from being a zoonotic disease, the current outbreaks highlighted rapid human-to-human transmission of MPXV, besides the reverse zoonosis has also been documented with recent first report of human-to-dog transmission, urging a call for the importance of one health approach. Atypical and unusual disease manifestations as well asymptomatic MPXV infections have also been observed during 2022 MPX outbreak. The affected patients typically develop a rash resulting in a mild disease followed by recovery with some supportive care and use of antivirals such as tecovirimat, cidofovir and brincidofovir in severe disease cases. Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccine with an excellent safety profile has been recommended to patients with higher risk exposure and immunocompromised individuals. Moreover, another vaccine the replication-competent vaccine (ACAM2000) could be a suitable alternative to MVA’s non-availability to some selective immunocompetent individuals. Current review highlights the salient aspects of management and treatment of monkeypox along with underlying promises in terms of therapeutics and a variety of challenges posed due to current global public health emergency situation to counteract MPX.
Monkeypox, Epidemiology, Disease, Therapeutics, Drugs, Vaccines, Clinical Management
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