ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Varruchi Sharma1, Diwakar Aggarwal2, Anil Kumar Sharma2 , Deepak Chandran3, Ajay Sharma4, Hitesh Chopra5, Talha Bin Emran6,7, Abhijit Dey8 and Kuldeep Dhama9
1Department of Biotechnology & Bioinformatics, Sri Guru Gobind Singh College, Sector 26, Chandigarh, India.
2Department of Biotechnology, MMEC, Maharishi Markandeshwar (Deemed to be University), Mullana-Ambala, Haryana, India.
3Department of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Amrita School of Agricultural Sciences, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
4Department of Chemistry, Career Point University, Tikker – Kharwarian, Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh, India.
5Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab, India.
6Department of Pharmacy, BGC Trust University Bangladesh, Chittagong 4381, Bangladesh.
7Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Daffodil International University, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.
8Department of Life Sciences, Presidency University, 86/1 College Street, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
9Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Article Number: 8341 | © The Author(s). 2022
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(suppl 1):3000-3012.
Received: 16 December 2022 | Accepted: 29 December 2022 | Published online: 30 December 2022
Issue online: 30 December 2022

Monkeypox virus is an orthopoxvirus sharing the common genus with variola and vaccinia virus. Most of the monkeypox (MPX) cases had been reported from the central and west African region (the main endemic areas) prior to 2022 but there was a sudden outbreak in May, 2022 disseminating the infections to thousands of people even in non-endemic countries, posing a global public health emergency. MPX was considered a rae and neglected disease, however the 2022 MPX outbreaks in multiple countries attracted attention of worldwide researchers to pace up for carrying out researches on various aspects of MPXV including attempts to design and develop diagnostics, vaccines, drugs and therapeutics counteract MPX. Apart from being a zoonotic disease, the current outbreaks highlighted rapid human-to-human transmission of MPXV, besides the reverse zoonosis has also been documented with recent first report of human-to-dog transmission, urging a call for the importance of one health approach. Atypical and unusual disease manifestations as well asymptomatic MPXV infections have also been observed during 2022 MPX outbreak. The affected patients typically develop a rash resulting in a mild disease followed by recovery with some supportive care and use of antivirals such as tecovirimat, cidofovir and brincidofovir in severe disease cases. Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccine with an excellent safety profile has been recommended to patients with higher risk exposure and immunocompromised individuals. Moreover, another vaccine the replication-competent vaccine (ACAM2000) could be a suitable alternative to MVA’s non-availability to some selective immunocompetent individuals. Current review highlights the salient aspects of management and treatment of monkeypox along with underlying promises in terms of therapeutics and a variety of challenges posed due to current global public health emergency situation to counteract MPX.


Monkeypox, Epidemiology, Disease, Therapeutics, Drugs, Vaccines, Clinical Management

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© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.