ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Mini Review | Open Access
Deepak Chandran1 , P. Hridya1, Diya Prasanth1, D. Abernaa1, A.V. Kaaviya1, P.S. Sivani Menon1, D. Vinodhini1, M.K. Muhammad Aslam2, M. Pran3, V. Vishnu Savanth2, Firzan Nainu4, Mohd. Iqbal Yatoo5, Mohammad Ebad Ur Rehman6, Hitesh Chopra7, Talha Bin Emran8,9, Abhijit Dey10, Anil K. Sharma11 and Kuldeep Dhama12
1Amrita School of Agricultural Sciences, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
2Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Kerala, India.
3School of Agricultural Sciences, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
4Faculty of Pharmacy, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia.
5Division of Veterinary Clinical Complex, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Shuhama, Alusteng Srinagar, Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
6Department of Medicine, Rawalpindi Medical University, Rawalpindi – 46000, Pakistan.
7Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab, India.
8Department of Pharmacy, BGC Trust University Bangladesh, Chittagong 4381, Bangladesh.
9Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Daffodil International University, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.
10Department of Life Sciences, Presidency University, 86/1 College Street, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
11Department of Biotechnology, Maharishi Markandeshwar University (Deemed to be University) Mullana-Ambala, Haryana, India.
12Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Article Number: 8354 | © The Author(s). 2022
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(suppl 1):3106-3118.
Received: 18 December 2022 | Accepted: 27 December 2022 | Published online: 29 December 2022
Issue online: 30 December 2022

Recent cases of monkeypox (MPX), a zoonotic illness caused by monkeypox virus (MPXV), outside of Africa have prompted international public health concerns. The emergence, re-emergence, and global dispersion of zoonoses are profoundly impacted by a wide variety of causes, including but not limited to climate change, urbanization, animal migration, quick means of travel and tourism, vector biology, anthropogenic influences, and natural factors. Human MPX was first identified in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 1970, and since then it has spread throughout Africa, particularly to West and Central Africa, with some instances even emerging outside of Africa. Since the 1970s, there has been an increasing trend in the occurrence of human MPX, with the DRC seeing the largest increase. The median age at first presentation has increased from 4 years in the 1970s to 21 years in the current time. The total fatality rate was 8.7%, although there was a significant variation between clades: Central African (10.6%) and West African (3.6%). Since 2003, sporadic outbreaks have occurred outside of Africa due to imports and travel-related dissemination. Risky practices that could lead to contracting MPX include having contact with infected animals or people. There is still much to learn about MPXV, such as the reason for the sudden increase in cases while travel links from endemic countries have not yet been established profoundly, identity the natural reservoir animal(s), make advances in diagnostics, increase surveillance and monitoring, carry out in-depth epidemiological investigations, genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, explore the reasons for the changing epidemiology and evolving nature of the virus, its ecological niche, and the discovery of effective treatment and management of MPX. This l mini-review aims to reveal an increase in the number of reported cases of MPX worldwide, with the highest concentration in the DRC, as well as its spread to other countries and a shift in the median age of patients from infants to teenagers and young adults highlighting from older years to current 2022 MPX outbreaks. Some cross-protection against MPX was provided by smallpox vaccination, suggesting that its discontinuation may have contributed to an increase in human-to-human transmission. The disease’s worldwide significance is underscored by the fact that it has spread beyond Africa. As the epidemiology of this resurging disease is constantly shifting, surveillance and detection programs are crucial to keeping up with it.


Monkeypox, Monkeypoxvirus, Epidemiology, Outbreak, Zoonoses, Case Fatality Rate

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© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.