ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Amisha Piyush Khare, Anusha Gopinathan , K.V. Leela and Shweta Naik
Department of Microbiology, SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur, Chengalpattu District, Tamil Nadu, India.
Article Number: 7852 | © The Author(s). 2022
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(4):2679-2687.
Received: 20 May 2022 | Accepted: 12 October 2022 | Published online: 07 November 2022
Issue online: December 2022

The prevalence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli has increased worldwide. Critical care areas of most hospitals use carbapenem antibiotics for the empirical treatment of gram-negative bacterial (GNB) infections. In the last decade, there have been reports of the detection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE). This rise in the spread of CRE presents a great challenge in the treatment of GNB infections and poses a serious threat to global health. To detect the burden of CRE and to characterize CRE, we used three phenotypic methods for the detection of carbapenemase enzymes. Using conventional aerobic bacterial culture methods, 150 Enterobacterales strains were isolated from various clinical samples. Identification of CRE was performed using multiple phenotypic detection methods, such as the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method for meropenem (10 mcg) using the CLSI 2021 interpretation for meropenem, modified Hodge test (MHT), Carba NP test, and modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM) test. A total of 150 Enterobacterales strains were isolated over a period of 1 year. Among these, 66/150 (44%), 63/150 (43%), 64/150 (43%), and 65/150 (43%) were identified as CRE using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method, MHT, mCIM test, and Carba NP test, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MHT, mCIM, and Carba NP tests within 95% CI were 93.94%/100%, 96.97%/100%, and 98.48%/100%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of MHT, mCIM, and Carba NP tests were 100%/95.45%, 100%/97.67%, and 100%/98.82%, respectively. The accuracies of the MHT, mCIM, and Carba NP tests were 97.33%, 98.67%, and 99.33% respectively indicating a high burden of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacterales. Therefore, given the current statistics of carbapenem resistance, use of carbapenem as empiric treatment in the intensive care units of hospitals may not be beneficial. Identification of carbapenem resistance can help in the initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. This study compares the accuracy and efficiency of Carba NP, mCIM, and MHT in detecting carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales.


Carba NP, Modified Hodge Test, Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method, Multidrug Resistant Gram Negative Bacilli, Carbapenem Resistance, Enterobacterales

Article Metrics

Article View: 225

Share This Article

© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.