ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Monalisa Debbarma, Birasen Behera, Bidyutprava Rout, Rajashree Panigrahy and Purabi Baral
Department of Microbiology, IMS and SUM Hospital, Siksha O Anusandhan (Deemed to be) University, Kalinga Nagar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
Article Number: 7737 | © The Author(s). 2022
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(4):2310-2316.
Received: 04 April 2022 | Accepted: 03 October 2022 | Published online: 07 November 2022
Issue online: December 2022

Urinary tract infection (UTI) poses a serious health issue for all age groups from neonates to geriatric age groups. Majority of the women experience urinary tract infections once in their lifetime. Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the most common uropathogen causing UTI which is followed by Klebsiella and Enterococci. Amoxicillin is the most resistant antibiotic against both E.coli and Klebsiella pneumonia whereas Gentamycin and Nitrofurantoin have been sensitive to both E.coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli, Klebsiella species, Proteus species, Acinetobacter species, Enterobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Citrobacter species are the most common causes of UTI. Enterococcus species, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Coagulase-negative bacteria are among Gram-positive bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is a coagulase-positive gram-positive bacteria that cause urinary tract infections (UTIs). Hence, we come to the serious conclusion that Uropathogens are becoming increasingly resistant to a different group of antibiotics. The misuse and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials have led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria all over the world, posing a threat to the public. Estimating the local etiology and sensitivity pattern could help in successful treatment. Inquiring into UTI epidemiology, such as risk factors, bacterial strains, and antimicrobial susceptibility, could help healthcare planners determine the best course of action.


Antibiotic Susceptibility, CAUTI, Nosocomial Infection, UPEC, Urinary Tract Infection, Uropathogens

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