Research Article | Open Access
Ramya Kumaran1 , R.V. Geetha2 and Sabitha Baby1
1Department of Microbiology, Karuna Medical College, Chittur, Palakkad, Kerala, India.
2Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India.
Article Number: 7861 | © The Author(s). 2022
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(4):2659-2668.
Received: 24 May 2022 | Accepted: 20 August 2022 | Published online: 01 November 2022
Issue online: December 2022

Resistance against the routinely used antibiotics has reached a worrying level globally. Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) production is the major mechanism of antimicrobial resistance. These ESBLs bacteria are resistance to penicillin, cephalosporins, monobactams. TEM1&2, CTX-M, SHV are the main ESBLs genes present in Klebsiella pneumoniae, which is produced by the alteration of amino acid in the active site. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of ESBL genes such as blaTEM 1&2, blaCTX-M and blaSHV. The present study was carried out from April 2019 to September 2019, a total of 121 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected and subjected to phenotypic study. Among these 19 isolated was ESBL positive, genes (blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCTX-M) were detected by conventional PCR method. blaTEM (100%) was the predominant gene detected flowed by CTX-M (68.42%) and SHV (57.89%). The highest level of antimicrobial resistance towards ampicillin (93.4%) followed by ceftriaxone (28.9%), cefotaxime (24.8%) and ciprofloxacin (22.3%). However, ESBL-producing isolates were showed resistance to ampicillin (100%) followed by ceftazidime (94.74%), cefotaxime (89.47%), amikacin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (68%). Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is due to the genes, especially extended spectrum beta lactamase, which is widely found in members of Enterobacteriaceae. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies regarding the distribution of ESBL in K. pneumoniae in Palakkad Dist., Kerala. Hence the aim of the current study determines the distribution of ESBL genes in ESBL producing K. pneumoniae isolated from various clinical samples.


K. pneumoniae, Antimicrobial Resistance, ESBL, Genotype

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© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.