ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Manal Khider1, Mahmoud Zaki El-Readi2,3, Salah Abdalrahim4, Abdel Naser Zohri4, Ibrahim M. Ibrahim5, Hussein H. Abulreesh6,7 , Iqbal Ahmad8 and Khaled Elbanna5,6,7
1Department of Dairy Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum 63514, Egypt.
2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, 71524 Assiut, Egypt.
4Sugar Technology Research Institute (STRI), Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Egypt.
5Depatment of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture Fayoum University, Fayoum 63514, Egypt.
6Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia.
7Research Laboratories Unit, Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
8Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Article Number: 7957 | © The Author(s). 2022
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(4):2601-2618. https://doi.org/10.22207/JPAM.16.4.28
Received: 08 July 2022 | Accepted: 12 September 2022 | Published online: 27 October 2022
Issue online: December 2022
Abstract

Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are novel functional additives for low-fat yogurt. Pharmaceutical, medical, and food industries are using more LAB-based EPSs. In this study, Leuconostoc spp. was used to produce ninth bacterial EPSs in a modified molasses medium. Production of EPSs was concentration-dependent on all stains and the highest yield was obtained from the S3 strain (55.23 g/l), followed by S6 (49.95 g/l), S8 (45.68 g/l), and S7 (44.23), respectively. HPLC and FTIR analysis showed that all purified EPSs from Leuconostoc citreum (S3) and Leuconstoc holzaapfelii (S8) were related to exopolysaccharide glucan.  Anticancer activity of all EPSs samples (EPSs1-9) against Caco-2 cells and normal MCR-5 cells were investigated using MTT assay. The results revealed that Caco-2 cells were more sensitive than the normal MCR-5 cells. The highest anticancer activity against Caco-2 cancer cells was recorded for EPS8 (IC50 = 22.94 µg/ml, SI=3.73), followed by EPS3 (IC50 = 36.15 µg/ml, SI=8.72), EPS1 (IC50 = 50.01 µg/ml, SI=3.73), and EPS4 (IC50 = 94.90 µg/ml, SI=3.26), respectively. The lowest cytotoxicity was recorded for EPS5 (IC50 = 130.5 µg/ml). The most active EPSs (EPS3 and EPS8) were used as fat replacements and stabilizers in low-fat set yogurt at non-toxic concentrations (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2%). EPS3 and EPS8 improved the low-fat yogurt’s organoleptic and rheological properties. EPS8 had the highest water holding capacity (77.26%), viscosity (3660 CP), and lowest syneresis (22.95%) and whey off (0.6 ml). Low-fat set yogurt enhanced with EPS3 and EPS8 recorded the highest sensory evaluation values with overall acceptability, especially EPS3b, EPS3c, EPS8c, and EPS8b; the total score point of 97.50, 97.43, 96.51, and 96.36, respectively in fresh age compared to control yogurt (92.64). In conclusion, Leuconostoc EPSs, especially EPS8, can be explored for anti-cancer effects on Caco-2 colorectal cancer cells. It could also improve the rheological and organoleptic qualities of low-fat set yogurt.

Keywords

Anticancer, Caco-2 cells, Cytotoxicity, Molasses, Exopolysaccharide, Glucan, Leuconstoc Strains, Low-fat Set Yogurt, Organoleptic and Rheological Properties

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© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.