The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a global opportunistic β-herpes virus causing severe diseases in immune-compromised patients, such as malignant tumor patients, especially those undergoing chemotherapeutic treatment. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HCMV-DNA in chemotherapeutic treatment naive cancer patients, and after chemotherapy, to compare between conventional nested PCR and ELISA techniques for the detection of HCMV, and to detect glycoprotein B genotypes. Plasma and serum samples before and after three chemotherapy cycles were collected from 49 chemotherapy-naive cancer patients. DNA was extracted from plasma samples using QIAamp® DNA Mini kit. HCMV-DNA was detected using a nested PCR technique. Multiplex nested PCR was used for HCMV-glycoprotein B (gB) genotyping. HCMV-IgG and -IgM were detected using ELISA technique. Thirty one (63.3 %) of the 49 plasma samples of the chemotherapy-naïve cancer patients were positive for HCMV-DNA; 21 of which remained positive after chemotherapy. However, 18 samples were negative of which 16 became positive after chemotherapy. gB-5 was the most common glycoprotein genotype detected (80.6 %), followed by gB-1, gB-3, gB-4, and gB-2. HCMV IgG was detected in the 49 serum samples of chemotherapy-naïve patients, and after exposure to chemotherapy. HCMV-DNA is commonly identified in cancer patients. Its detection after chemotherapy exposure may suggest HCMV reactivation. The most common genotype detected in cancer patients in Egypt is gB-5 in contrast to earlier research. IgG was detected in all patients. This indicates that HCMV is endemic in Egypt, necessitating the development of public awareness campaigns about HCMV infection and preventive strategies.
Human Cytomegalovirus, Genotyping, Cancer, ELISA, Nested PCR
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