ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Fatimah A. Alqahtani1 , Hibah I. Almustafa1, Reem S. Alshehri1, Sumayah O. Alanazi1 and Ashraf Y. Khalifa1,2
1Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.
2Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Beni-Suef, Beni-Suef, Egypt.
Article Number: 7915 | © The Author(s). 2022
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(4):2201-2224.
Received: 16 June 2022 | Accepted: 30 August 2022 | Published online: 28 September 2022
Issue online: December 2022

Antibiotic resistance is a major risk to human health worldwide due to antibiotic- and multidrug-resistant bacteria, especially in the case of serious infections, which limits the availability of antimicrobial treatment options. Focusing on the bacterial resistance mechanisms against antibiotics and the conventional strategies used to combat antimicrobial resistance, this review highlights the history of antibiotics and their target mechanisms, mentions the strategy limitations, provides the most recent novel alternative therapies to combat resistance, and illustrates their mode of action and applications that may treat several infectious diseases caused by bacterial resistance. Finally, this paper mentions future prospects that we believe would make a considerable difference in the microbial resistance battle. Novel antibiotic alternative therapies, including nanomaterial therapy, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy, hybrid antimicrobial therapy, and phage therapy, are covered in this review.


Bacteria, Antibiotic-resistance, Nanomaterials, Antimicrobial Hybrids, Photodynamic Therapy, Phage Therapy

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© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.