Staphylococcus haemolyticus is a highly resistant opportunistic pathogen having close genomic relatedness with other virulent species of staphylococci. However, compared to Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, little is known about the resistance genes of S. haemolyticus. The purpose of this study was to characterise antibiotic resistance genes in S. haemolyticus isolates. Standard microbiological techniques were used to identify and confirm 104 S. haemolyticus isolates included in the study. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and D-test were performed, followed by PCR amplification of various resistance determinants (mecA, ermA, ermC, msrA, aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2″), ant(4′)-Ia,aph(3′)-IIIa, tetK, tetM, dfrA, fusB, fusC, fusD and mupA). Methicillin resistance was observed in 93.3% of study isolates. The maximum number of isolates showed resistance to erythromycin (n=79, 76%), followed by ciprofloxacin (n=66, 63.5%) and cotrimoxazole (n=58, 55.8%). In the D-test, 8 isolates showed inducible (iMLSB) and 11 showed constitutive (cMLSB) resistance. Among the resistance determinants, mecA gene (93.3%) was the most prevalent, followed by dfrA (50.5%). Furthermore, aac(6’)-Ie-aph(2’’) and aph(3’)-IIIa combination was observed in 26.9% of isolates, and aac(6’)-Ie-aph(2’’) alone was present in 3.8% of isolates. Among the study isolates, 17.3% exhibited tetK gene, whereas only 1% exhibited tetM; a combination of tetK and tetM was observed in one isolate. The fusB and fusC were present in 11.5% of isolates, and 12.5% of the isolates were positive for mupA. In conclusion, the present study underlines the concern of increasing antibiotic resistance among S. haemolyticus isolates. Avoiding misuse/overuse of antibiotics along with continuous surveillance programs can reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance.
S. haemolyticus Resistance, Multidrug-resistant S. haemolyticus, Antibiotic Drug Resistance
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