ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Kiran Chawla1 , Anupam Berwal2, Druti Hazra1, Kalva Mohan Kondalarao1 and Padmaja Ananth Shenoy1
1Department of Microbiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India.
2Department of Microbiology, Kalpana Chawla Government Medical College & Hospital Karnal, Haryana, India.
Article Number: 7272 | © The Author(s). 2022
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(3):2020-2027.
Received: 24 August 2021 | Accepted: 25 July 2022 | Published online: 19 August 2022
Issue online: September 2022

Non-fermenting gram-negative bacteria (NFGNB) frequently exhibit drug resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine the drug resistance pattern among the NFGNB isolates causing respiratory tract infections (RTIs). A retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of non-fermenters causing RTIs over four years (2016- 2019) was done and the change in drug resistance pattern was studied. A total of 653 cases were obtained that included 191 (29.2%) Moraxella catarrhalis, 283 (43.3%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 132 (20.2%) Acinetobacter baumannii,  47 (7.2%) Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates. A higher resistance (82.6%) was observed for piperacillin-tazobactam and cefpirome, followed by imipenem (79.5%) and ciprofloxacin (76.5 %) for A. baumannii isolates. A sharp decline in resistance pattern for piperacillin, cefpirome, Imipenem and cefoperazone-sulbactam in 2019 and an increasing resistance to gentamycin and ciprofloxacin were noted. Among P. aeruginosa isolates, 94% aztreonam and 83.4% cefoperazone-sulbactam resistance were detected. There was an increased resistance for cefpirome and piperacillin and a decreased resistance for Imipenem was recorded in 2019. In cases of M. catarrhalis, 22.51% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, followed by erythromycin (18.32%) and tetracycline (17.80 %). S. maltophilia showed a 100% sensitivity for co-trimoxazole and 2.1% resistance for ciprofloxacin. A constantly changing antibiotic-resistant pattern of non-fermenters compels for a continuous update of drug-resistant trends through a longitudinal surveillance program in different geographical areas.


Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Moraxella catarrhalis, Non-fermenters, Drug-resistant, Respiratory Tract Infection

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© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.