Quorum sensing (QS) is a type of cell-to-cell communication that is influenced by an increase in signaling molecules known as autoinducers, which is correlated to the increase in the density of microbial communities. In this review, we aim to discuss and provide updates on the different signaling molecules used by Escherichia coli, such as acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL), autoinducer-2 (AI-2), and indole to influence key phenotypes such as antibiotic drug resistance, biofilm formation, and motility during quorum sensing. Based on the literature, E. coli signaling molecules have different functions during cell-to-cell communication such that the increase in AHL and indole was found to cause the modulation of antibiotic resistance and inhibition of biofilm formation and motility. Meanwhile, AI-2 is known to modulate biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and motility. On the other hand, in the existing literature, we found that various plants possess phytochemicals that can be used to alter QS and its downstream key phenotypes such as biofilm formation, swimming and swarming motility, and genes related to motility, curli and AI-2 production. However, the exact physiological and molecular mechanisms of these natural compounds are still understudied. Understanding the mechanisms of those phytochemicals during QS are therefore highly recommended to conduct as a necessary step for future scholars to develop drugs that target the actions of QS-signaling molecules and receptors linked to antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, and motility without putting bacteria under stress, thereby preventing the development of drug resistance.
Autoinducers, Quorum Quenching, Essential Oils, lux genes, Quorum Sensing, sdiA
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