ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Hassan Rafique1, Nazim Hussain1, Muhammad Usama Saeed1, Hafiz M.N. Iqbal2 , Gulfam Azim3 and Muhammad Bilal4
1Centre for Applied Molecular Biology (CAMB), University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore, Pakistan.
2Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, Monterrey, 64849, Mexico.
3National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Pakistan.
4School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003, China.
Article Number: 7753 | © The Author(s). 2022
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(3):1492-1505. https://doi.org/10.22207/JPAM.16.3.44
Received: 10 April 2022 | Accepted: 25 July 2022 | Published online: 17 August 2022
Issue online: September 2022
Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus, an opportunistic pathogen, can root several infections viz skin and tissue infections, bacteraemia, food poisoning, pneumonia, and many other clinical conditions with some variations of virulence factors. In treatment of infections, caused by this Gram-positive pathogen, several antibiotics are being used importantly Methicillin and Vancomycin. This pathogen has high capability of antibiotic resistance development and had evolved new strains such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA). Meta-analysis in Ethiopia showed that pooled prevalence of MRSA in environment, food, animal, and human was 54%, 77%, 15%, and 38% respectively (2022). Risk of MRSA isolates from burn ICU was 55 % higher (2018). In Bangladesh, 37.1% isolates from frozen meat chicken (2021) were identified as MRSA. This problem is being dealt with a novel drug called Linezolid which has been proved effective against both MRSA and VRSA. Exacerbating the situation, this pathogen has shown resistance against this unprecedented drug by means of a number of drug resistance mechanisms. Its prevalence has been reporting since the adoption of the drug, but with a minute ratio at one time/place to the very high percentage at another time/place. This inconsistent prevalence must not be ignored, and its surveillance should be augmented as antibiotic treatment is critical for fighting against microbial infections. This review highlights the worldwide reports in which Staphylococcus aureus of either wildtype or Methicillin or Vancomycin resistance that have shown resistance to Linezolid drug for the past 2 decades. At the same time where incidences of Linezolid Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LRSA) indications are reporting, there is a call for comprehensive strategies to overcome this challenge of antibiotic resistance.

Keywords

Linezolid, Antibacterial Resistance, Linezolid Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

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