Acute diarrheal illness is a serious public health issue in developing and developed economies, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Children below five years are the most vulnerable, with one in every six dying from diarrhea. Diarrhea may be caused by various viruses, protozoa, and bacteria. Rotavirus, in particular, is often associated with diarrhea in children. Early detection of rotavirus infection reduces the need for medication and the spread of the virus and helps determine the optimal treatment strategies. In this study, we compared the efficacy of the rapid immunochromatography technique (ICT) with that of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect rotavirus antigens in stool samples. Overall, 361 stool samples were obtained from hospitalized children under five-years-old, with acute watery diarrhea symptoms and were tested by both rapid ICT and ELISA. Among these samples, 104 (28.81%) tested positive by ICT and 109 (30.19%) by ELISA. Furthermore, the specificity and sensitivity of ICT were assessed using ELISA, the gold standard test. ICT had a 95.41% sensitivity and a 100% specificity. Thus, during emergency testing, ICT may be utilized as an alternative test for quick diagnosis with high specificity and sensitivity in patients with rotavirus diarrhea.
Acute diarrhea, Rotavirus, Immunochromatography, ELISA, Sensitivity, Specificity
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