COVID-19 has emerged as the most alarming infection of the present time instigated by the virus SARS-CoV-2. In spite of advanced research technologies, the exact pathophysiology and treatment of the condition still need to be explored. However, SARS-CoV-2 has several structural and functional similarities that resemble SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV which may be beneficial in exploring the possible treatment and diagnostic strategies for SARS-CoV-2. This review discusses the pathogen phenotype, genotype, replication, pathophysiology, elicited immune response and emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 and their similarities with other similar viruses. SARS-CoV-2 infection is detected by a number of diagnostics techniques, their advantages and limitations are also discussed in detail. The review also focuses on nanotechnology-based easy and fast detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Various pathways which might play a vital role during SARS-CoV-2 infection have been elaborately discussed since immune response plays a major role during viral infections.
COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Pathogenesis, Immune Response, Diagnosis
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