ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Kapil Kumar Malviya
Department of Anatomy, Institute of Medical Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Article Number: 7736 | © The Author(s). 2022
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(3):1425-1440. https://doi.org/10.22207/JPAM.16.3.20
Received: 04 April 2022 | Accepted: 11 June 2022 | Published online: 25 July 2022
Issue online: September 2022
Abstract

COVID-19 has emerged as the most alarming infection of the present time instigated by the virus SARS-CoV-2. In spite of advanced research technologies, the exact pathophysiology and treatment of the condition still need to be explored. However, SARS-CoV-2 has several structural and functional similarities that resemble SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV which may be beneficial in exploring the possible treatment and diagnostic strategies for SARS-CoV-2. This review discusses the pathogen phenotype, genotype, replication, pathophysiology, elicited immune response and emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 and their similarities with other similar viruses. SARS-CoV-2 infection is detected by a number of diagnostics techniques, their advantages and limitations are also discussed in detail. The review also focuses on nanotechnology-based easy and fast detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Various pathways which might play a vital role during SARS-CoV-2 infection have been elaborately discussed since immune response plays a major role during viral infections.

Keywords

COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Pathogenesis, Immune Response, Diagnosis

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