ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Kapil Kumar Malviya
Department of Anatomy, Institute of Medical Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Article Number: 7736 | © The Author(s). 2022
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(3):1425-1440.
Received: 04 April 2022 | Accepted: 11 June 2022 | Published online: 25 July 2022
Issue online: September 2022

COVID-19 has emerged as the most alarming infection of the present time instigated by the virus SARS-CoV-2. In spite of advanced research technologies, the exact pathophysiology and treatment of the condition still need to be explored. However, SARS-CoV-2 has several structural and functional similarities that resemble SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV which may be beneficial in exploring the possible treatment and diagnostic strategies for SARS-CoV-2. This review discusses the pathogen phenotype, genotype, replication, pathophysiology, elicited immune response and emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 and their similarities with other similar viruses. SARS-CoV-2 infection is detected by a number of diagnostics techniques, their advantages and limitations are also discussed in detail. The review also focuses on nanotechnology-based easy and fast detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Various pathways which might play a vital role during SARS-CoV-2 infection have been elaborately discussed since immune response plays a major role during viral infections.


COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Pathogenesis, Immune Response, Diagnosis

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© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.